Food and Drugs as Public Health Issues Chapter 13 1 Learning Objectives Describe six ways that food affects health and disease Identify the steps in a foodborne outbreak investigation Identify the roles played by the FDA, CDC, and U.S. Department of Agriculture in food safety Describe the phases of drug approval by the FDA Explain the safety limitations of traditional approaches to drug approval Describe the role of post-market surveillance in drug safety. Describe recent changes in the FDA laws for food and also for drugs. Identify other categories of products besides foods and drugs regulated by the FDA. 2 Ways Food Can Affect Health and Disease Too little Too much Deficiencies – vitamins, minerals Box 13-1 Pellagra Deficiency Contaminants Individual susceptibilities Foodborne communicable diseases in th U.S., each year, cause: 1 in 6 to get sick >100,000 hospitalizations 3,000 deaths 3 Steps in Foodborne Outbreak Investigation Figure 13-1 Reproduced from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Outbreak Investigations.
Part 1: The five phases of behavior assessment are (a) screening and general disposition, (b) defining and generally quantifying problems or desired achievement criteria, (c) pinpointing the target behavior(s) to be treated, (d) monitoring progress and (e) following up (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). Screening and general disposition is used to discover and identify any number of variables that may influence the occurrence of problem behaviors. Defining and generally quantifying problems or desired achievement criteria is when you establish the goal for change and the steps required to achieve it. Pinpointing the target behavior(s) to be treated is when you specifying target behaviors. Monitoring progress is when you work on the procedures needed for reorganization and observation of the changed behavior.
5 – Briefly summarize how each variable was operationalized (4 points). 6 – Determine whether or not the hypotheses and/or research questions were supported, and at what level of significance (2 points). 7 – In no more than one or two short paragraphs, explain the implications of the findings (5 points) This article by Dr. Tamara Afifi an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara is an explanation of The Revelation Risk Model or otherwise known as the RPM. The RPM focuses on the factors that predict the revelation of secrets and strategies used to reveal or continue to conceal secrets. This article suggests that people evaluate their risk factors when deciding to reveal or conceal a secret.
What laboratory test would you expect to see preformed in coagulation studies? * PT * aPTT * d-dimer 6. How would you respond? There is a concern that you are caving some complications with bleeding or your blood clotting. We will need to determine the cause of the bleeding.
Mindy Cohen Crystal Bollinger David Patchett NT1110_Davis UNIT 10_Lab 8 Lab 8: Troubleshooting Task 1: Procedure 1. Examine the six-step troubleshooting model shown here: Step 1. Ascertain what the problem is. Step 2. Write down probable causes of the problem.
They are determining the data to be collected or described, determining the population to be sampled, choosing the type of sample, and deciding on the sample size. 4. List the three approaches to complex random sampling. They are systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. 5.
An example found from an informational resource will be given to support the findings on correlation Research. 3 Correlation Research Methodologies The correlation is a way to measure how associated or related two variables are. The researcher looks at things that already exist and determines if and in what way those things are related to each other. The purpose of doing correlations is to allow us to make a prediction about one variable based on what we know about another variable. The researcher asks questions to a group of participants to find out in what way pairs of variables are related.
Quantitative risk assessment emphasizes reliance on numeric parameters of risk, and qualitative or subjective risk assessment analysis is represented by the identification of possible hazards (Daughtery, 1997). Qualitative descriptors are used to discuss the risk process in three elements: frequency, probability, and consequence. Elements can be diagrammed into a risk matrix. The aim of this risk assessment is to determine risk of laboratory activities, evaluate risk level, and reduce the risk levels of activities done in a laboratory on a pharmaceutical site. Risk Evaluation As seen in Table 1, risk for all hazards was based on the variables of frequency (F), probability (P), and consequences (C).
Why do similar kinds of hazards have different impacts in different places? Use examples in your answer. (10 marks) Similar kinds of hazards can cause a different scale of impact in different places due to many factors, the main influence being the country’s economy. A hazard is an unexpected event or process which affects people, causing loss of life or injury, economic damage, disruption to people’s lives or environmental degradation. A natural hazard could become a disaster when it has serious effects such as large loss of life or property.