He believed that people develop constructs as internal ideas of reality to help them understand the world around them and that the way the world is viewed is based on individual experiences, interpretations and observations. This essay will also look closely at the work from Hans Eysenck and Stanley Rachman on Trait Theory (1965) and Phillida Salmon (2003) who developed George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory further by relating it to teaching. It will also discuss the interrogative themes of Power Relations, Situation Knowledge and Agency Structure. The strengths and weaknesses of both approaches will be critically compared along with looking at the contrasts of both hoping to offer an explanation to the above statement ‘The traits that we think we find in others represent our personal construction of them’ (Butt, 2012, p.53). Theories of personality were developed around a century ago in three different strands known as clinical, psychometric and experimental traditions, although all separate they seek to explain behaviour and the individual differences in the way people react to the same situation.
Name: Study Outline for AP Psychology Midterm 1. Psychological Perspectives: Know the seven perspectives of contemporary psychology and be able to identify a statement as coming from one of those perspectives. 2. Research: Have a thorough understanding of the approaches to psychological research (case study, experiment, observational research) and the factors that must be considered when evaluating the findings of any research (operational definition, replication, reliability, validity, correlation vs. causation, illusory correlation, placebo effect, etc.) 3.
As a result there are a variety of theories of personality which try to describe the cause and effect of the human personality. This essay will briefly compare and contrast two of these theories which include the psychoanalytic and humanistic theories of personality. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the various types of theories with respect to personality because such a discourse enables psychologists to discover more about social behaviours in daily life (Fiske et al, 2010; 365). Both theoretical viewpoints, while being substantially different from each other, do share some common comparisons as we shall examine below. Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21).
Is a person exhibiting maladaptive behavior due to something genetic; or is it something neurological; something gone awry in the brain cells? The Biological Perspective considers and strives to answer these and similar questions Psycho-dynamic Perspective holds that our thoughts and emotions provoke our mood and influence our behavior. Psychoanalysis is the method of approach taken by reach people who are deeply disturbed. This method challenges the patient to release repressed emotions and to search for the meaning behind his/her Theories 3 way of thinking. The environment in which we find ourselves plays a very big part in how we
Cognitive psychologists believe that mental processes and stored representations of the world determine behaviour and are central to human experience. Psychologists see the mind as a complex machine – where they believe that it is useful to model mental processes using an information-processing approach whereby: Information is examined from the outside world is received and encoded, Storage and representation of this information to ourselves, Ways in which this information is manipulated and used by the individual, And how we output information back into the world to be received by others. Many
I will also be looking at specific situations that affect the errors and biases in the perception of people and events. There are two types of perception, general perception which refers to the perception of objects and social perception, which refers to the perception of people. Within this essay we will focus on the social perception, however both general and social perception rest on the same basic principles Gross (2005): Selection, organization and inference of information received. Zimbardo et al (1995) view the fundamental role of perception as an attempt to make sense of sensation, the process of gathering information from the overloaded sensory input of external energy sources and organize it into stable, orderly percepts of meaningful sequential objects that are relevant to the perceiver. It is also stated that a percept is what is, was or has been perceived, part of the phenomenological or experienced outcome of the process of perception.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can be used to treat people with a wide range of mental health problems. CBT is based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all interact together. Specifically, our thoughts determine our feelings and our behavior. Therefore, negative - and unrealistic - thoughts can cause us distress and result in problems. When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take.
There are several major approaches in psychology and each approach assumes different ideas about the human mind and behaviour. According to Rycroft the term ‘psychodynamic’ means the “study of mental processes from a dynamic point of view” (Rycroft, 1995 p144), in other words the active, conflicting forces within our mind that motivate our behaviour. This essay will look at the key features of Psychodynamic Approach in psychology, which include the unconscious mind, the tripartite personality and psychosexual stages followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses and finally a conclusion of the findings. According to Eysenck (2005) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the creator of the principles of psychoanalysis which in turn started the psychodynamic approach. From an early age, Freud was a gifted student and originally trained in medicine and physiology of the nervous system.
Your therapist helps you identify negative thoughts and evaluate how realistic these thoughts are. Then, he or she teaches you to “unlearn” negative thought patterns and “learn” new, helpful ones. CBT is a problem-solving approach. You cannot control other people or situations, but you can control the way you perceive and react. CBT teaches you the skills to change your thinking and manage your reactions to stressful people and situations.
Social Influences on Behavior Social influences on behavior This paper will attempt to explore and explain basic concepts of human interactions regarding a perspective on psychology and examples given regarding how human behaviors change based on different social situations, including specific behaviors, environments in which the behaviors occurred, associated phenomenon associated with behaviors, and if the behavior exhibits any necessary therapeutic intervention. Social Influences on Behavior Social psychology and sociology are very similar and travel the same path. Conformity may make a new situation easier and combining the identity to a group is a social identity theory. An individual’s behavior often changes by changing the individual’s environment or group setting. Humans crave social interactions; to withhold social interaction is a squandered effort.