The two main counselling approaches that will be discussed are Psychodynamic and Humanistic, including the theoretical principles that underpin both approaches. It is important to acknowledge that all counselling approaches agree that the core conditions are essential as the basis for any approach: incongruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. The theoretical principles that define the Humanistic counselling approach is in essence a positive view of human nature and believes that humans have an inbuilt ability to develop and reach their full potential, and promotes personal growth. In order for a Humanistic approach to be successful then the quality of the relationship between the counsellor and client is of paramount importance, all the core conditions, warmth, empathy and congruence should be displayed by the counsellor. This approach encompasses the view that people are trustworthy, are unique as individuals and have their own realities.
Intrinsic motivation remains a consequential construct, demonstrating the natural human readiness to master and subsume. Intrinsic motivation is characterized as the doing of movement for its inherent fulfillments instead of for some detachable outcome. At the point when inherently inspired an individual is moved to represent the fun or test involved instead of in light of outer goads, weights, or prized. This characteristic motivational inclination is a discriminating component in cognitive, social, and physical improvement on the grounds that it is through following up on one’s natural interest that one develops in information and abilities. Intrinsic motivation exists inside people, in an alternate sense natural inspiration exists in connection in middle of people and exercises.
Humanism gives us a positive view of human beings and of their significant competence to be self-determining. This paper will explain how humanistic psychology, also known as the third force, is an approach that focuses on the basic concept that individuals are good and will seek out self-actualization but that finding self-fulfillment can be impacted by environment. The humanistic theory is guided by the belief of free will of human beings. This strong belief in free will has both positive and negative implications for the humanistic approach. The paper will show both positive and negative results that relate to the author's own insights and individualization.
Also each the temperament elements are related to some personality aspects and behaviors: endotonia for relaxation and interaction with other people, mesotonia for the love of action and ectotonia is centered on privacy. In his theory Dr. Sheldon explains that everybody has this components but in different degrees, and he made an scale from 1 to 7 to determine the degree. The second theory is focused on psychological types. It is based on a typology from a psychologist named Carl Jung. Myers-Brigg’s theory divides personality in four traits: Extroversion-Introversion, Intuition-Sensing, Thinking-Feeling and Judgment-Perception.
This just means that the act is correct as long as it brings happiness to the greatest amount of people. Sidgwick and Bentham believed in similar views and are seen as act utilitarians. Act utilitarianism is when you have to decide what action would bring about the greatest good so it depends on the consequences of the action so the rightness or wrongness of something can be changed. Rule utilitarianism believes that rules should be created by using utilitarian principles
Carl Rogers states ‘ The organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism’ (Rogers, 1951, p487). But for a person to be able to grow and self- actualise they need to be in an environment that provides them with congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. The Psychodynamic Theory works with feelings that are in the unconscious mind, the subconscious and it is about going back into the clients past and understanding the causes of their beliefs, ways they then behave, thoughts and feelings. People throughout their lives may build up shields to mask these painful feelings, but they still will affect the way the person is as they are often hard to face. These shields are demonstrated in behaviour.
I will also use at least three Freudian defense mechanism with real-life examples. Psychoanalytic and Trait Theories Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian physician, he was responsible for the development of the psychoanalytic theory in the early 1900s. “According to Freud’s theory, conscious experience is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience. He argued that much of our behavior is motivated by the unconscious, a part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware.” (Feldman, 2011). His theory is compared to the unseen floating Mass of a floating iceberg; where the unconscious contents far surpass in quantity the information that is in our conscious awareness.
Overall, the goal of humanism is to understand the description of human being. Such as importance of language, establishing a set of values, the full spectrum of human emotions, and seeks the meaning in their lives (Henley et al, 2009). Maslow took humanistic psychology to the complete opposite path to behaviourism, which focused on predicting and controlling human behaviour, and objectively study of human behaviour. Unlike behaviourism, humanism believes studying animal behaviours cannot lead to understanding the behaviours of humans (Jourard, 1974). He believed a healthy motivational status is when healthy people have sufficiently gratified their basic needs for safety, belongingness, love, respect, and self-esteem.
The ego is the personality that is used for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and makes sure that the impulses of the id can be shown in a manner that is acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. This theory's main ideas are that the ego works based on the reality principle. This strives to satisfy the id's wants in socially acceptable ways.
61).and orientation as well as motivation to learn. Self-Directed Approach It is the need and ability of an individual to control own learning capacity for the personal growth in contrast to androgogy that focuses on mutual benefit to oneself and surroundings. It has various goals associated with it. Elucidating a few:- 1) - Accepting responsibility of one’s own learning. 2) - Fostering of transformational learning that is the critical reflection is defined as the historical, geographical and cultural reasons for one’s own needs, wants and interests.