Transgenesis and Cloning Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain the inserted gene. The gene can come from the same species (called Cisgenesis) or from a different species entirely. To facilitate the transfer of genes from one organism to another, often a Transgenic Organism with Recombinant DNA is created: -The first step in creating an organism capable of carrying out the transformation process is to isolate the required gene. This is done so using Restriction Enzymes, which target a specific gene sequence. The gene is often cut with staggered ends, called “Sticky Ends” which only allow specific and complementary gene sequences bond by base pairing.
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
When cells need to divide, the cells have to replicate and copy its entire DNA so that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information. The hydrogen pairs that are holding together the base pairs are broken by enzymes, like helicase, and the molecule is split in half creating two strands. This process is also called the “unzipping process”. These two strands have to follow the rules of base pairing. Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
In order to utilize casein, bacteria cells secrete proteolytic exoenzymes (amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, xylanases and cellulases) outside of the cell that hydrolyze the protein to amino acids. The amino acids can then be used by cells after crossing the cell membrane via transport proteins . Starch hydrolysis test is used to differentiate bacteria based on their ability to hydrolyze starch with the enzyme α-amylase or oligo-l, 6-glucosidase. These enzymes hydrolyze starch by breaking the glycosidic linkages between the sugar subunits. It aids in the differentiation of species from the genera Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and members of Enterococcus .
During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed. This process is similar in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One notable difference, however, is that prokaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed quickly after the start of transcription. The short-lived, unprocessed or partially processed, product is termed pre-mRNA; once completely processed, it is termed mature mRNA.  Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processingMain article: Post-transcriptional modification Processing of mRNA differs greatly among eukaryotes, bacteria, and archea.
Additionally, the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts are different from that of the eukaryotic cell in which they are found. As Margulis predicted, both types of organelles include DNA that is like that of prokaryotes- circular, not linear. The DNA of these organelles evolves independently and at a different rate from the nuclear DNA of the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria arise from pre-existing mitochondria and chloroplasts arise from pre-existing chloroplasts (not manufactures through the direction of nuclear genes). A fairly simple piece of evidence for the endosymbiotic hypothesis is the fact that both mitochondria and chloroplasts have double phospholipid bilayers.
Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli with pGLO Ahmed Islam Abstract Aim: This experiment is designed to help understand the concept of genetic transformation. This is the uptake of DNA fragments from the environment by a competent bacterium. Competency must be induced in bacterium such as Escheria coli. Also, this lab helps understand the concepts of plasmids, specifically pGLO, and their genes, specifically green fluorescent gene (GFP). Expression will be regulated using promoters.