Andre Oliva Over the course of colonial and American history, the use of slavery became a huge driving force in the agricultural prosperity of the southern part of the English Colonial territories, which eventually spread out to the rest of the English territories over time. Unbeknownst to most, indentured servitude was the system that laid the foundation for the lucrative slave system – So why was it phased out in favor of slavery? Indentured servants were people that couldn’t afford the trip over to the new world, instead choosing to pay the price of the voyage with labor. Once they paid off their debt, servants were able to leave, get a small farm of their own, and grow their own crops for a living- Because of this the amount of indentured servant’s available dwindled, making the small amount of indentured servants too expensive to buy. African slaves on the other hand, were very available according to records from the “Estimated Immigration into the thirteen colonies and the United States…1607-1819” statistical table- There were 33,200 slaves available in the years 1607-1699, and 278,400 slaves available 1776-1809- An increase of 245,200 slaves.
The high hopes of land filled with gold were soon dashed by the confrontation of hostile indigenous Indians and constant experiences of starvation by the settlers. As the colony appeared to be on the verge of collapse, it found its saviour in the labour extensive industry of tobacco cultivation. The fate of the Virginian economy now rested primarily on indentured servants from the British Isles and not African imported slaves. The harsh conditions and strict discipline endured by indentured labourers, and likewise the Indian community, resembled the brutal system that the black slaves would be subjected to at the turn of the century. It became clear that the new world was a profit-seeking enterprise, and there was no moral objection to the exploitation towards your fellow race.
LECTURE ONE: The Demographic Impact of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade on African Societies The demographic effects of the slave trade are some of the most controversial and debated issues. Tens of millions of people were removed from Africa via the slave trade, and what effect this had on Africa is an important question. Walter Rodney argued that the export of so many people had been a demographic disaster and had left Africa permanently disadvantaged when compared to other parts of the world, and largely explains that continent's continued poverty. He presents numbers that show that Africa's population stagnated during this period, while that of Europe and Asia grew dramatically. According to Rodney all other areas of the economy were disrupted by the slave trade as the top merchants abandoned traditional industries to pursue slaving and the lower levels of the population were disrupted by the slaving itself.
Although the population of enslaved persons was large, the amount of slaves who died was large as well, due to mistreatment and diseases. In contrast to Brazil, The Caribbean had large productive lands that were transformed into sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and cotton plantations. Sugarcane plantations were considered most dangerous because they had the highest slave and infant mortality rates. Because of these high mortality rates and large plantations, The Caribbean constantly spent money to replace enslaved workers. Instead of reproducing slaves within their own population, The Caribbean bought new recruits.
Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, off the coast of the United States was discovered in 1493 by Christopher Columbus and his entourage, who claimed the small island for Spain. Unlike any other nation in the Western hemisphere that was involved in the slave trade, Puerto Rico initially began with the African freemen who came with the Spanish conquistadors. Originally populated by about sixty thousand Taino Indigenous people, benign diseases and attempted sucides soon decreased the population. As a result, African peoples were forced into slavery to help build fortifications, work the fields, and carryout slave owner’s domestic work thus entering Puerto Rico in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. However, the enslaved African peoples didn’t just contribute to the development of this new island; their traditions are what inspired the culture that Puerto Rico is built upon today.
The ships could yet return to England. The Negro slave trade became one of the most important business enterprises of the seventeenth century. The monopoly of the French slave trade was at the first assigned to the French West India Company in 1664, but yet they transferred in 1673, to the Senegal Company. The Monopoly of the Dutch Slave trade was given to the Dutch West India Company, incorporated in 1621. In the early as the 15 century, England passed from raising sheep and producing wool, an agricultural activity, to manufacturing cloth.
Unfortunately because of the struggle to survive the African people adopted slave trade and started capturing and trading their people for European goods. Portugal’s started slavery in the fourteenth century with West Africa. The West Europeans developed a trading system in the sixteenth century but it was not successful as expected because the slaves tried to escape the hardship of labor. Later slavery expanded leading to the” Triangle Trade.” This was where ships left Europe went to Africa and then Americas. The Middle Massage was called “The Middle Passage,” because it was the second and longest part of a three part triangle trade that started from Africa and ended in North and South America, and the Caribbean.
African Enslavement In the late seventeenth century and the early eighteenth century, there was a large number of slaves being transferred to North America colonies. A large number of the original African slaves to North America came via Barbados. Barbados was the first “slave society,” which meant that it's economy was completely dependent on enslavement. About forty percent of the English residents of Barbados migrated to other colonies, and they brought their laws and slave holding practices with them. Both South Carolina and the Chesapeake were affected by these Barbadians ways of slave holding.
ο Even if they survived disease, they could only expect to live another 20 years. ο Males ages between 15-24 composed _'s of the servants ο Once servants survived they had real opportunity to advance o A servant could become a “freeholder” or an independent farmer o They could even take part of government or hold a military position Body 2 (African Slaves) ο As times moved on, by the late 1600's, English men and European men were not a reliable and efficient source of labor o As more colonies formed, people had a choice of where they wanted to migrate ο As more land was cultivated and taken, there was less of an appeal to become an indentured servant ο The people of the colonies found their answer to the shortage of labor on the coast of Africa o A law passed that if there was a non-Christian imported into a colony, could be slaves for life. ο Between 1492 and 1770, more Africans than Europeans came to America ο The Atlantic slave trade developed within America and so the slave trade began o The journey to America was cruel and harsh. They were placed below the deck of ships. Many Africans got sick and caught many diseases such as yellow fever and
Slavery in the spanish colonies first started when settlers enslaved natives using then to work on local labor. When the portuguese had an increase in the demand of agricultural products they needed workers but many lives were being talke from native slave, they were not working hard, and diseases from the new world were killing them. this was when they noticed that Aficans were immune to the conditions and diseases. Being a slave in Africa was good for some but ever since the Portuguese came in to the slave trade, life for a slave became harsh. The main reason why the portuguese enslaved aficans was so they can have men to work on plantations.