Organizations And Management Essay

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This essay will give an outline of the contributions that Taylor, Weber, Fayol and Mayo have made to the study of organizations and management. It will provide real world examples of situations where their theories have been implemented and it will discuss the pros and cons of each theory. Frederick Winslow Taylor, is responsible for a management theory that has become known as Scientific Management or Taylorism. Taylor’s goal was to increase industrial efficiency through systematic analysis of work to deduce the “one best way” of doing a job. A famous example of Taylor’s work is when he was working for Bethlehem Steel, he observed workers shoveling coal and through careful experimentation concluded that the optimal amount of coal per shovelful was 21.5 pounds. After redesigning the worker’s shovels and teaching all workers to shovel in the most efficient way, the company was able to reduce the number of men shoveling coal from 500 to 140. (Jacobs, 2009). The principles of Scientific Management were widely applied in the manufacturing industry during the early 1900s.. The main problem with Taylor’s approach is that it takes all decisions away from the worker, making the worker a cog in the machine. Although the worker may be shoveling the optimal amount of coal and using the most efficient technique to do so, if the workers job has become de-humanized and therefore less pleasant the worker will become demoralized and unmotivated leading to lower level of production. As well as the human disadvantages of the Scientific Method, some have criticized it for a “Separation of Planning and Doing” (http://www.managementstudyguide.com/taylor_fayol.htm) Although Taylor’s Scientific Management may have some de-humanizing elements when taken to an extreme, every contemporary manager should observe his or her employees to assess the efficiency of their movements and

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