BIZ 251 Organizational Behavior
Fall 2010 (Professor Dan Jeong)
Study-Guide for the Mid-term Exam
The Field of OB
1. What is an organization? What is OB?
A collection of people who work together & coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals, responding to the external environment.
OB is study on how people feel, think, act & interact in organization and how groups & organizations can affect individual behaviors, considering their environments.
2. Explain the classical theories (Taylor and Fayol) and modern theories (Mayo and McGregor) of OB as a closed system perspective.
Classical theories thought that the effectiveness of an organization depends on internal design. But they failed to consider human needs & the social context. The modern theories think that positive treatment of employees improves motivation & productivity. They learned that managers must consider the human side, but failed to consider the social context.
3. What is an open system perspective? What is the main argument of contingency theory?
In an open system, an organization takes in resources from its external environment and converts or transforms them into goods and services that are sent back to that environment, where customers buy them.
The main argument of contingency theory is that there is no best way to design and manage organizations because organizations are not all alike.
Individual Differences: Personality, Ability & Value
4. Why do we need to understand individual differences? What are the big five personality traits in McCrae & Costa’s model?
Organizational members interact on a daily-basis. Without understanding each other, their interactions are unlikely to result in high levels of satisfaction and performance. Individual differences influence several work-related attitudes and behaviors, so it is useful to understand and manage employee behaviors.
The big five personality traits...