It will remind you of your ideal self, your future plans and your past successes. You are now free from the frustrating cycle that has caused you so much distress and weight gain. From this time onward, you will eat only when you are sure that you need re-fuelling. You will now begin to satisfy yourself in many new and more interesting and fulfilling ways. From now on, you eat to sustain yourself … You “eat to live”, and not “live to eat”, that is all part of the past … You now get enjoyment from other things rather than just food … You find that doing healthy fun things, brings you enjoyment … Eating is just something that you do to get energy so you can continue doing the things you enjoy You are in control of yourself now and are taking the first step at controlling your eating habits … right now … Take control … Eat healthier … And attain your goal weight.
Operant conditioning plays a major role in behavioral modification. It can lead to desirable behavior or behavior that yields desirable consequences. These can range from a child learning responsibility to social acceptance leading an individual to smoke or do drugs to fit in. * * THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING. * * The theory of operant conditioning is a term the B.F Skinner coined in 1938.
Often just knowing that we are thirsty as opposed to hungry will lead to a better choice being made in selecting drink over food. As cognitive function deteriorates in the dementia patient these decisions are obviously effected more so. In the extreme a dementia patient will not realise that they are dehydrated or that they are hungry and will go without food and drink for longer periods then perhaps is healthy unless they are prompted by their carers to receive nutrition This factor must also be balanced against the fact that older, sentient, people often need less food and drink then younger more active people and a good carer will also be conscious of this Dementia can effect the choices that a person makes on the type of food they want to eat. For example we have a lady called Joyce who prefers foods (and drinks) that are white. (She also prefers her chair to be white so you can see the level of dementia being dealt with here).
Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning. To understand the relationship that classical and operant condition has you must first understand what they are to see how they work together. Classical conditioning is the processes that take creating an association between what is going on within ones environment. This includes items that are found naturally as stimulus and something that can be considered neutral. The most famous example of this is thanks to Ivan Pavlov.
Skinner as a behavioural psychologist believed that the study of observable behaviour is more productive that being concerned with the internal goings on of the mind. He held the belief the best way to understand behaviour was to observe the causes of an action and the associated consequences. He gave this approach the name operant conditioning (McLeod, 2007). In 1957, Skinner’s book Verbal Behaviour was published which introduced the notion that language is behaviour. In the book Skinner (1957; cited in Pavio & Begg 1981) identifies what he calls ‘Verbal Operants’ further broken down into Mands, tacts, ethoics, textuals and intraverbals.
Social learning theory suggests that aggression is learnt, by observing others acting aggressively. For the social learning theory an individual would observe a model and try to recreate the models behavior who has repeatedly been reinforced. Before the individual can reinact the aggressive behavior they must form mental representations of it in their mind and commit these to memory. The individual will learn what acts would be rewarded and what acts would be punished and commit this to memory. They must then enable how they will enact these behaviours in their mind and believe that they have a similar ability to the model to be able to have the same effect as the model.
In 1941 N.E Miller and associate J. Dollard proposed that one could learn a behavior by observing that behavior in others. They called this theory social learning. The social learning theory of Miller and Dollard also stated that “by imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify that learned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement.”(Green) Loosely translated this means that if we ape the actions of those around us they will reward us for such actions. In 1954 Julian Rotter broke away from the then popular instinct based psychoanalysis and drive based behaviorism theories. Rotter believed that a psychological theory should have a psychological motivational principal, and that people were motivated to seek out positive reinforcement or stimulus and to avoid the negative of either.
In the same way Operant conditioning can be applied due to the fact that we like those who provide us with rewards and dislike those who don’t – or provide us with punishment. Argyle (1988) showed research evidence to support this, demonstrating that everyday experiences of people who are
Reinforcement is known as the main principle of the operant conditioning. Two forms of consequences are known as reinforcement and punishment. They can be negative or positive. Receiving a treat for good behavior is the primary positive reinforcement that will involve the introduction to a stimulus. This will help to increase the chance of good behavior.
Operant Conditioning This technique is based upon the belief that a positive reinforcement will encourage a desirable behavior. In this technique, the patient will be given some positive reinforcement whenever a desirable behavior is performed. Such as in the case of the eating disorder, the patient is put in a barren room. Whenever the patient is willing to eat and his/her weight is found to be increasing, he/she will get a reward such as visit from people, TV, music, etc. This technique is also used in child education.