Ontology Essay

552 Words3 Pages
• Ontology-the study of being • Being and Nothingness – Being is complete fullness of existence, a meaningless mass of matter devoid of meaning, consciousness, and knowledge. • Being-in-Itself – Being-in-itself refers to things; all things non-human. – This is because the main distinction between the two types of being is conscious thought; the ability to reflect upon and be aware of oneself as well as one’s own identity. Being-in-itself does not have this ability and thus, refers to all non-human objects: plants and animals, even the deceased human body – 1. Being is in itself- This meant to draw attention to the unity of things in themselves. It is consciousness which looks for and understands becoming, or growth. • At all phases of development, a tree is a unity unto itself. The consciousness understands through relation, by comparing the appearance of the tree of yesterday to that of today. Yet the tree is still the tree, it is “perfectly at one with itself,” it is in-itself and thus has no relation to itself. (Catalano 45). – 2. Being is what it is- This meant to clarify that the being of “in-itself” is not a “self”, as the “itself” implies. • An apple is an apple; it is not a “self”. Neither does it have the task of becoming what it should be. It is not aware of itself or of its own being, there is no selfhood. Beings simply are what they are. Sartre explains that • This can better be expressed by saying thatbeing is what it is. – 3. Being is- By saying “being is” Sartre is saying “that being can neither be derived from the possible nor reduced to the necessary” (29). Essentially, Sartre is stating that things simply are; “things exist without reason or justification” • Being-for-Itself – Being-for-itself is conscious of its own consciousness but is also incomplete. – The for-itself must be its own nothingness. – Essence is forced to
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