A coral reef offshore is a significant source of sand particles. The shape of a beach depends on whether the waves are constructive or destructive, and whether the material is sand or shingle. Constructive waves move material up the beach while destructive waves move the material down the beach. On sandy beaches, the backwash of the waves removes material forming a gently sloping beach. On shingle beaches the swash is dissipated because the
Dunes are asymmetric with a slight windward slope. The windward slope is the side of the dune that faces the wind. The side of the slope that faces away from the wind is known as the leeward side. This side of the dune becomes very steep. Dunes are formed when sand creeps up the windward side and falls down the leeward side.
Currents are the ocean’s constant flow of water that is pushed on by either the wind or from tides that are caused by the moon’s gravitational field. Currents can occur along coasts, and sometimes only affect small areas. A longshore current is caused when waves strike the beach at an angle. The front part of the wave hits the shallow water first and slow down. Rip currents are a dangerous effect of longshore currents.
Maverick’s Wave The Mavericks is one of the most world renowned big wave break in Northern California. It is located about half a mile from the shore of Pillar Point Harbor just north of Half Moon Bay, California. The area is a shallow near shore reef in the locality of the San Gregorio fault, a major active fault within the San Andreas fault system. Motion on the fault zone has uplifted and deformed the rocks in the area near Mavericks into the S and J shaped folds we see on the seafloor (NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries). It contains the biggest waves that attract many surfers around the world.
Solar radiation has been suspected to play a role in coral bleaching. The consequent exposure to high or low temperatures, increased solar radiation, desiccation, and sea water dilution by heavy rains could all play a role in zooxanthellae loss, but could also very well lead to coral death. -Fresh water dilution Rapid dilution of reef waters from storm-generated precipitation and runoff has been demonstrated to cause coral reef bleaching. Generally, such bleaching events are rare and confined to small, near-shore areas. Nearly all of the world’s major coral reef regions (Caribbean/western Atlantic, eastern Pacific, central and western Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Gulf, Red Sea) experienced some degree fo coral bleaching and mortality during the 1980s.
Lava deltas are created when pahoehoe goes into the ocean and stays there for a long time. Lava deltas are fan shaped pieces of land that form in the ocean. When the lava flows into the ocean, it cools really quickly and breaks into pieces, which can be sand sized or block sized. The different pieces collect on a slope underwater and build the base of a structure that in time can hold up the lava flows that form the delta above the water. When the pieces of lava collect on a steep slope, then the side of the delta crumbles often and creates a bunch of submarine landslides.
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Ambereen Alvi Geo 102 Extra Credit Ocean Currents Ocean Currents: How They are Made and Work What is an Ocean Current? And what does it have to do with you? Ocean curents are the continuos, direct movement of ocean water generated by forces upon the ocean. This can depend on things we can experience directly like wind, temperature, and water density, and also those things a little less obvious like the rotation and mass of our earth. Together these things work to create ocean currents that help in the overall vitality on our earth dynamic surface.
As you swim through the water, you can even make your own waves. How about a flag on a windy day? The wind creates waves in the flag. Both the waves in the flag and the ocean waves are waves that you can see. Although there are other kinds of waves.
Both runoff of fresh water from the land and rainfall may dilute water along the seashore. Alternatively, tide pools may become saltier than the sea because of evaporation during exposure at low tide. Both perturbations tend to increase in magnitude as height above the mean low tide line increases (Laboratory Manual for Principles of Biology, 1992). [pic] Figure 1. The marine intertidal zone.