Critically evaluate Wittgenstein’s language games theory as an approach to religious language. God’s transcendence means there is widespread discussion as to how any statements in regards to his existence or nature can be deemed as ‘meaningful’. Influential philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein 1889 - 1951 was heavily involved in studies of Language and developed the idea that the purpose of philosophy was to clear up the conceptual confusions that arose through our unexamined use of language (including statements of religious significance and any religious language) and that words are a function of language, not just simply a signifying of an object. 'Whereof one cannot speak, therefore one must be silent.' Wittgenstein believed, in opposition to Rene Descartes’ Cogito Ergo Sum (I think, therefore I am) that language was a social product, and that statements made about the world were basic and 'groundless' and believed that judgement through opposing 'language games' was not possible, as they are parts of different discourse.
In William L. Rowe’s essay The Ontological Argument Rowe carefully details an argument that, upon first read, appears to convincingly prove that God does not exist. His argument has, however, been even more carefully torn apart and examined by some of the worlds greatest philosophers and is often criticized. In my essay I will prove that Rowe’s argument although seemingly perfect comes nowhere near disproving the existence of a God. Quote #1 “…Anselm insists that anyone who hears of God, thinks about God, or even denies the existence of God is, nevertheless, committed to the view that God exists in the understanding.” I will use this quote to support the idea of God. This quote does not prove his existence but it does prove that
He would expand on this and argue that all he has proven is that the temporal lobes play a part in religious experience however he is prepared to acknowledge that God may of place them there for means of communication. In stark contrast Persinger would argue that he has dismissed the possibility of God placing them by creating the God Helmet. He is likely to argue that he has done this by re-creating the numinosity of a religious experience; he would present his case studies as evidence and state that over 900 believed that it felt like a genuine religious experience. A theist would counter argument this and argue not everyone felt a change, such as Richard Dawkins. Persinger would argue that his temporal lobes are heightened therefore it cannot be artificially stimulated.
He turns away from the religious fervor and zealous behavior which culminated in wars and opts for a religion of natural laws from God. "I admired still more the intelligence that presides over this vast machinery. I said to myself: A man must be blind not to be impressed by this spectacle; he must be stupid not to recognize its author; he must be mad not to adore him." (31) Faith in humankind stems from faith in God. When asked about true religion, he is told, "Love God and your neighbor as yourself."
Part III: Presuppositions * The author assumes that the readers have a preconceived idea of how to properly define justice. * The author assumes that the readers will agree with him about the book’s validity on the topic of justice and the authenticity and accuracy of scripture. * The author assumes that his readers are not in need of generous justice themselves. * The author assumes that the readers have a basic understanding of the gospel of Christ. Part IV: Book Summary The idea of justice in the world today is often misconstrued; the most commonly accepted definition of justice is giving someone what the rightly deserve.
Evaluate Maurice Wiles views on miracles Maurice Wiles is a 20th century philosopher of religion. He has written many books including "The myth of god incarnate" and "gods action in the world". He took the same idea as David Hume in rejecting miracle, however took a very different approach to him. Maurice Wiles believed that Christian teaching has always interwoven with prophecy and miracle: God being incarnated in Christ. He said for Christians the universe and the nature of its workings was in itself a miracle from God.
The argument from religious experience seems to state that we can experience God and therefore God must exist, for surely what we experience must be real. William James, American psychologist and philosopher, worked to expand on and validate this topic. James defined religious experience as ‘The feelings, acts and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far as they apprehend themselves to stand in relation to whatsoever they may consider divine.’ He then identified the four types of mystical experiences: ineffable, noetic, transient, passive. An ineffable experience is one that cannot easily be articulated. It is too big a thing for words and therefore not necessarily understood by those who have not experienced it.
Does this mean “all truth?” Does that role pertain to the special disciples (Apostles) only, or to all believers? 16:13-15. Bruce, p. 320. Jesus had already introduced the disciples to the truth, and the Spirit would only guide them along the way of the truth. Jesus also insists that the spirit will only speak that which he hears but not on his own impulse.
We don’t do things for a reward in heaven but we do them because the sign of Heaven is already inside of us. With faith and works we need to not do it for salvation but do it because God is working inside of us. The works that we do is the outworking of the faith that is inside of us. By not doing good works that we have been called to do we are potentially pushing down the work of God that is inside of us. Lewis’ view here is so true.
He had answered many of my questions about my faith and what I believe is real. This does not mean that this book has changed my values and views of my religion, however has made me a more devote person to my religion. I agree with Paine as well that we are always contradicting ourselves. With my church group, we always say that we fit the Bible stories to fit and suit our need, but always show our true devotion. These stories are to be taken with a grain of salt and not to be take as seriously as they are being taken.