This is unethical because it’s a clear act of deception; although it can be justified as the deception was necessary for the experiment because the participants most likely would not have showed the real obedience levels. Another ethical issue with this is the procedure the experiment made the participant undergo as this would have caused mental stress, because they had to according to their knowledge administer electric shocks to the ‘learner’ in the experiment and although this was a confederate and the shocks were not truly administered as it was fake the real participant was not aware of this and believed that they were administering shocks that kept increasing in power and could have potentially killed the ‘learner’ of the experiment and to make the participant believe in this more they had a recording playing with what to the participant would have believed to be the reaction of the ‘learner’ to the shocks that they were supposedly being given and also there was a supervisor wearing a lab coat that was conducting the experiment giving them verbal prods when the participant was wavering and seemed like they did not want to continue, this reinforced the need for
According to Watson, no research could be considered valid if the introspective method of validating behavior was used. He scoffed at the idea of using untrained people who pondered their own thoughts and placed them in record, as research that was bound to be a failure. Watson decided that it was time to “turn to behavior as the data to be observed” (Goodwin, 2007, p. 343). Watson made it his
They were confident in their judgement however do admit to experiencing tension and doubt but managed to resist the pressure of conforming. It can be argued that the procedures used in Aschs study are ethically questionable. For example, the study may cause
I disagree with certain idea and issue Rene Descartes argues about in his passage. His beliefs of skepticism at points were valid at times but every human has a right to believe, do anything or create what they want to believe in their mind. To make it feel real is up to the person because we control our emotions which control our mind set to think if we are being trick to having ten fingers or to believe there is no god that created this world we call earth. The scope of knowledge in this reading "Meditations on first philosophy" by Rene Descartes is the truth of doubt. Doubt causes people to believe that you do not know something when you actually do.
Benefits come from belonging in a group, individuals may conform on the surface but disagree with the group internally. This is called compliance, going along with the majority despite knowing they are incorrect. Informational social influence; is powered by what people need or their motives. When people are unaware how to behave, think or feel in a social situation the need for conformity is the need to be safe. An example of psychological research in conformity is Asch (1951) line study, where there were varying amount of both participants and confederates and they were asked to state which line was bigger out of three.
An example of where participants were misled was in Milgram’s experiment. Milgram lied to the participants by saying that the purpose of the research was to assist them on learning. However in reality it was an experiment to test people’s willingness to obey orders to inflict pain. Therefore it is unethical to cause psychological or physical harm. The lab experiment can also be said to be unrepresentative because it is mostly a study on small scale.
During the agentic state an individual may feel moral strain, moral strain is when a person may be aware that the order they're following is immoral or goes against their moral views but they feel unable to disobey and continue the behaviour anyway. When in the agentic state the individual is acting as an agent for others, they do not feel responsible for their own actions as they believe responsibility falls to the authority figure giving the order. As this gives a clear description of obedience, society can learn from and aim to avoid future events similar to Mai Lai massacre. There has been much researcher into obedience through many studies including Milgram & Hofling, both these studies were lab experiments so any findings from the data would be considered high in validity and therefore any changes made to society from the theory would likely be worthwhile. However agency theory is more of a description than an evaluation of obedience, therefore the theory is incomplete and other theories, such as social power theory it is an alternative explanation for obedience, as a result of this any changes society makes on the basis of agency theory may be invalid and useless as the theory itself may be incorrect/incomplete.
And last but not least, because they both see issues in a realistic view. Please read on to get a better understanding of the matter. Johnson would not see anything valuable in the exposure of children to advertising because he would e completely against it. This is because it manipulates children. For example, advertising gives kids, "...a specific reason to ask for the product."
Conformity generally has a negative connotation. When confronted with a difficult situation, it is human nature to use others as information sources, resulting in a tendency to conform. Conformist behavior has been criticized as a shortcoming of human nature (Zollman, 2008). There are several types of conformity, such as compliance, a visible expression of conformity; obedience is compliance with a direct command; and, acceptance is sincere, inward conformity. A further description of acceptance is when a person conforms in belief and behavior; usually, a good move but not always.
Ellis believed people developed psychological disorders due to their beliefs about “insane thoughts” and “dogmatic associated feelings.” That it is not point “A” that upsets us but point “B”, the consequence or reaction. REBT was developed by Ellis because he was frustrated with the outcome of psychoanalysis; it did not work for all clients. Learning that one cannot change the past and not to dwell on past actions helps to teach self-acceptance. Accepting oneself with good or poor achievement, not rating oneself and loving oneself with or without approval is unconditional self-love and acceptance. This is rare and very tough to instill in ourselves.