The DNA components shown in the Gizmo are phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars 2. A nucleoside has two parts: a pentagonal sugar (deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in color). When a nucleoside is joined to a phosphate, it is called a nucleotide. How many different nitrogenous bases do you see? 4 Note: The names of these nitrogenous bases are adenine (red), cytosine (yellow), guanine (blue), and thymine (green).
Formed elements Cells along with cell-like structures found in blood Nucleic Acid Made up of nucleotides and a sugar-phosphate backbone •Bases: A T C G –Two DNA strands join together when base pairs bond • A-T • C-G –Joined together by hydrogen bonds » weak bonds Alimentary canal Tube that begins with the mouth and ends with the anus that is employed by many animals for digestion. Macroevolution —Large-scale patterns, trends, and rates of change among groups of species Cardiac Muscle / Cardiac Muscle - short, branched muscle fibers (cells) - mononucleated - striated, involuntary -Intercalated discs(junctions)=structure integrity nondisjunction a failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate at anaphase Blood clot Aggregations of the protein fibrin to seal larger holes that can form in blood vessels due to injury. single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) smallest type of genetic change that can occur within a given gene ABO Blood
Organelles include mitochondria, Iysosomes, the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria: Every cell in the body has at least 1000 of these rod-shaped, spherical bodies and very energetic active cells like muscle and liver cells will have much more. Mitochondria are concerned with energy release. Each mitochondria has a double layered membrane but the inner layer is folded at intervals, which produces a series of ridges known as cristae. The enzymes responsible for the end stages of glucose oxidation are located on the cristae.
Matching bases of DNA & RNA ! Double stranded DNA unzips Matching bases of DNA & RNA ! Double stranded DNA unzips T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T Regents Biology! Regents Biology! Name: ______________________ Protein Synthesis Matching bases of DNA & RNA !
The Gene Theories are inherited through gene transmission. Nucleic acids hold all genetic materials for living organisms. Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA) are the genetic material in living organisms. Along with DNA, RNA or Ribonucleic acids is used for protein synthesis. Through Central Dogma (translation and transcription) Proteins are synthesized and when amino acids bind to the protein it gives functionality to cells.
The suffix –ine is used for amino acids, and the suffix –yl is used for the protein’s structure. Carbon needs to create bonds; in any way it can, with other atoms. It can share its electrons with up to 4 other atoms at once, which lets carbon build complex chains. Carbon is very similar with silicon, the element right under it. Silicon has the capability to imitate carbon, and constantly bonds with oxygen.
Ionic Bond 13) Name the four main classes of biological molecules and their monomers First main class of biological molecules is carbohydrates, monomers are energy, glucose and structure. Second class is lipids, monomers high energy, storage, cell membrane, butter vegetable oil and cholesterol Third is proteins, monomers structure, enzymatic and amylase and Fourth main biological class of molecules are Nucleic acids, monomers nucleotides, hereditary code ,energy carrier, DNA and ATP 14) Briefly describe the following types of bonds: * Covalent Bond Covalent Bond is the stronger bond in nature. What happens in covalent bond is that the atoms are sharing electrons so each shell has the maximum numbers of electrons that they need. * Ionic Bond Ionic Bond does not share electrons like covalent bond it transfer the electrons to an another atom so it can reach the maximum number of electrons in the shell. * Hydrogen Bond Hydrogen Bond is the attraction between partial charges it holds the biological molecules together.
Along the lagging strand's template, primase builds RNA primers in short bursts. DNA polymerases are then able to use the free 3'-OH groups on the RNA primers to synthesize DNA in the 5'→3' direction. The RNA fragments are then removed by DNA polymerase I for prokaryotes or DNA polymerase δ for eukaryotes (different mechanisms are used in eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and new deoxyribonucleotides are added to fill the gaps where the RNA was present. DNA ligase then joins the deoxyribonucleotides together, completing the synthesis of the lagging strand.  Primer removal In eukaryotic primer
The molecular mass was determined by comparison with the refrence protein markers (6.5-200 kD, Biorad 161-0317) with 9 bands; aprotinin (6 kDa), lysozyme (14.4 kDa), trypsin inhibitor (21.5 kDa), carbonic anhydrase (31 kDa), ovalbumin (45 kDa), bovine serum albumin (66.2 kDa), phosphorylase b (97.4 kDa), b-galactosidase (116.2 kDa) and myosin (200 kDa). Protein bands were visualized by silver staining. 3.10 Effect of Enzymes, pH and temperature on purified protein extracts: 3.10.1 Effect of Enzyme: Two protein enzymes proteinase K (Fermentas, SKU # AM2546) and trypsin (Sigma, USA Cat # T 7409) were used to check their effect on antimicrobial activity of purified protein/peptide(s) using method by Carol et al.