INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR REACTION: The main features of nuclear reactions include radioactive decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Radioactive decay: Energy is released in a radioactive decay in the form of the kinetic energy of the particle emitted (α and β), the kinetic energy of the daughter nucleus and the energy of the gamma-ray photon that may accompany the decay. The energy involved may be calculated by finding the mass defect of the reaction. The energy released is the energy equivalent of the mass defect of the reaction. Nuclear fission: Nuclear fission is the process in which a large nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei that are almost equal in mass.
The process of changing one element into another is called transmutation. The two main ways that a transuranic nucleus can be produced is by bombarding its nucleus with ions or neutrons. These ions or neutrons can be captured by the target nucleus and produce heavier nucleus. Transuranic element 1: U-238 is bombarded with neutrons it can be converted to U-239 which then undergoes beta decay to produce neptunium and plutonium. Pu-239 is changed to americium-241 by neutron
“Nuclear fission is the process of breaking up atoms; the process will generate an enormous amount of energy in form of heat” (Nuclear Power and the Environment). The first man-made reactor was built in the USA in December 2, 1942 called-
Reaction rate is affected by any catalysts present (which speed up the reaction usually with an intermediate step), temperature (increases the number of particles collisions), concentration (increases the number of collisions), and surface area (increases the space available for collisions). Reactions can only occur when collisions take place. The most generic form of the rate law is Rate = K * [A]m * [B]n where (k is a constant specific to an equation and temperature). Now, the compounds A and B might not have any effect on the rate, which would cause them to drop out of the equation completely, or they might have so much effect that they are raised an order (squaring the concentration). The rate law for this reaction is k [CV+]m[OH-]n. Since the hydroxide ion concentration at the beginning is about 1000 times larger than the concentration of crystal violet, [OH-] will not change that much during this
Carbon dioxide is an significant contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect. It can result in trapping more of the heat that Earth is radiating into space and cause detrimental climate changes and rising sea levels. The main concern regarding the combustion of organic compounds is the result of incomplete combustion. Incomplete combustion occurs when there is not enough oxygen to completely burn the fuel to carbon dioxide and water, causing pollution and fuel inefficiency. For example: Pentane reacts with little oxygen to form
Once generation is accomplished the available bromine can be brominated. The in-situ process is done to eliminate that risk of direct handling of bromine. The effect of bromination of (E)-stilbene result is the formation of meso-stilbene dibromide. Experimental
The more electrical energy added, the hotter the plasma arc becomes. Plasma arc cutting machines control this powerful energy by constricting the arc and forcing it through a concentrated area (the nozzle). By increasing air pressure and intensifying the arc with higher amperage, the arc becomes hotter and more capable of blasting through thicker metals and blowing away the cuttings, with minimal cleanup required. 3.1 BACKGROUNDS AND THEORY Plasma is defined as a gas which has been heated to an extremely high temperature and ionized so that it becomes electrically conductive. The plasma arc cutting and gouging processes use this plasma to transfer an electric arc to the workpiece.
This whole process is called a nuclear chain reaction. The reactor core generates heat as the kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy. Gamma rays are produced during fission and absorbed by the reactor, where thermal energy is converted to heat. Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission production remains in the reactor, sometime even if it shut down.
Unfortunately, the activity of burning or combusting fossil fuels releases various kinds of hazardous substances and pollutants which eventually leads to changes in the environment; such as climate change, global warming, and changes in environmental health. Let us start with the change in climate or climate change. For over the past 150 years, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil have caused the concentrations of heat-trapping "greenhouse gases" to increase significantly in our atmosphere. These gases prevent heat from escaping to space, somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. It would change our climate, but it would not bring us close to the level of uninhabitable Venus.
The consequence of climate change is serious. It will cause sea level rises，more flooding and stronger storm. Secondly, the shortage of fossil fuels is also a big problem, which is means fossil fuels are finite and non-renewable. If people cannot use them reasonably and economically, fossil fuels will be used up very soon. Klass model is a good illustration of this problem and it assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively (Shahriar & Erkan, 1).