Notes Essay

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Chapter 13 Learning Objectives Define Adaptations Something, such as a device or mechanism, that is changed or changes so as to become suitable to a new or special application or situation. Evolution Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of new species. Fossils are any preserved remains or imprints of living organisms (usually ancient animals and plants), such as bones, shells, footprints, or leaf impressions. Who was Charles Darwin, what was the name of the ship that he sailed on, and what is the name of his 1859 publication? The beagle, Explain the importance of the following people: Jean Baptiste Lamarck French biologist. He is credited with the first use of the word biology Charles Lyell Scottish geologist, studied at oxford Thomas Malthus British philosopher and economist famous for his ideas about population growth. Peter and Rosemary Grant British evolutionary biologist at Princeton university; they are noted for their work concerning Darwins finches on the Galapagos island. Artificial selection Natural selection Only organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated. What observations did Darwin make while on his journey? 1. 2. What did Darwin infer from his two observations? 1. 2. Define Extinction The fact of being extinct or the process of becoming extinct Paleontologist The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms. Fossil Record the total number of fossils that have been

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