noise Essay

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Noise *there are 2 definitions of sound: Sound subjectively: is sensory experience perceived by the brain Sound objectively: is the physical form of wave motion resulting from particle displacement in an elastic medium. Noise: a subjective undesirable part of sound. Or, sound has a potential for inflicting hearing impairment or other adverse physiological or psychological changes in the body. Sources of the noise:- *occupational: 1-constructing activities 2-food processing industries 3-petroleum 4-mining 5-welders *environmental: 1-rood traffic 2-air craft 3-constructing activities #Types of exposure:- a) according to time: 1-continous 2-intermitent b) according to kind: 1-steady 2-impulsive c) according to frequency: 1-pure tone 2-broad band noise Effects of noise: Extra auditory Psychological: anxiety sleeplessness, increase accidents Physiological: Activation of autonomic nervous system,so,increase BP,HR,RR Increase risk of CHF,IHD,stroke Peripheral circulatory symptoms, increase atherosclerotic plaques, allergic problms, digestive upsets General contractions of muscles Hormonal secretion changes Alternation in the body immune response Auditory effects: According to the resultant pathophysiology:2 types: 1-Acoustic type: Type of sound: sharply rising wavefront (explosion) Pathophysiology: rupture of ear drum Dislodgement of the ossicles May damage to the organ of corti in the inner ear if the seal of the foot of the stapes to the oval window is disrupted and the leakage of cochlear fluid results 2-Noise induced hearing loss(NIHL) Type of sound: long term exposure to intense noise Path physiology of NIHL 1- mechanical: repeated exposure to excessive noise destroy the hair cells within the organ of corti 2-

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