The NCLB requires all states to utilize assessments to determine and report if a school has made adequate yearly progress (AYP) in the proficiency levels of all students. This is a relatively recent shift from local control of schools to centralized governance which is intended to improve education and eliminate harmful disparities in education quality (Ricci 342). Instead of school districts determining education standards, the state and federal governments provide the policy direction. One method to assess education performance and compliance with the centralized policy is the use of accountability measures - i.e., standardized tests. The NCLB, coupled with state policy, is intended to decrease inequality and set an objective measurement in place where school districts, schools, teachers, and even students can be held accountable for their progress or lack thereof.
A test or assessment yields information relative to an objective or goal. In that sense, we test or assess to determine whether or not an objective or goal has been obtained. The Common Core are standards adopted by most schools to provide consistent guidelines for what every student should know and be able to do in math and English language arts from kindergarten through 12th grade. These standards focuses on developing the critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills students will need to be successful. As of today, most states, (forty-three states, the District of Columbia, four territories, and the Department of Defense Education Activity), have voluntarily adopted these standards.
The articles used will explain how this test was developed and how, when administered correctly, it can identify the signs of early developmental delays in children. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has been used for decades as a formal tool to diagnose learning disabilities in children. Since the time of its development in 1906, this test is still widely used among psychologist in both school and clinical settings. Its intended purpose is to answer the following questions: What is intelligence? How do we measure intelligence?
Nicholas Paramo Formal and Informal Assessments Within the classroom there are many assessments that can be administered to students to gauge their overall performance within the classroom or to predict their performance in future subjects. Formal assessments are used for evaluation purposes and include standardized tests as well teacher-produced exams. Informal assessments are used by a classroom teacher to determine the level of a students' understanding. The two formal assessments I have chosen to examine is the standardized aptitude test and standardized achievement test. Aptitude tests usually measure knowledge of an individual that has already gained before taking a test.
Standardized tests involve administration of instructions, questions and scoring to all individuals in a similar manner. The test aims at comparing students’ knowledge in a given class, region or country. Program tests involve the use of teacher-made trial to determine how well scholars understand a particular content. Criterion-referenced tests compare student performance against a set standard while essay tests require students to give answers to several questions demonstrating their ability to recall, organize and interpret information in a logically integrated manner. On the other hand, informal assessments evaluate a student’s progress and performance individually.
There are three different methods used to assess student knowledge: diagnostic, formative, and summative. In order to test students on the knowledge and understanding of kindergarten contend standard K.6 “Students understand that history relates to events, people, and places of other times,” the teacher can implement the use of all three assessment methods. The diagnostic method is an assessment on the child’s previous knowledge or understanding of a subject, this method could involve asking the students if they know any of the elements of the content standard. For example, a teacher could ask if a student knows what the word “history” means. And depending on the students’ response, the teacher could take that question a step further by asking if the student personalized questions about the student or the student’s family, or even historical figures or events.
Diana Grande Response Paper Okagaki & Sternburg’s Ideas Develop, Cognition, & Learning Dr. Templeton 10/22/2012 In “Putting the Distance into Student’s Hands: Practical Intelligence for School” by Lynn Okagaki and Robert J. Sternburg, the two authors discuss a new age idea for teaching in America’s schools, especially public schools. The two of them worked with Howard Gardner on a curriculum the three of them want to implement in junior high and high schools. This curriculum consists of many theories the three of them have come up with, like Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Sternburg’s triarchic theory, also with sub theories. Okagaki, Gardner, and Sternburg’s theories contribute well to the curriculum the three of them would like to implement and it would help improve learning greatly by teaching students to take control of their own learning, learn tacit knowledge, and improve in studying and test-taking. Okagaki and Sternburg’s ideas discuss something called tacit knowledge.
School counselors must demonstrate the effectiveness of the school counseling program by analyzing the school counseling program data to determine have changed as a result of the school counseling program. School counselors use data to show the impact of the school counseling program on student achievement, attendance and behavior and analyze school counseling program assessments to guide future action and improve future results for all students. The performance of the school counselor is evaluated on basic standards of practice expected of school counselors implementing a comprehensive school counseling program (“American School Counselor
Garrison, C. & Ehringhaus, M. (2009, June). Formative and summative assessments in the classroom. Middle School Journal, 40(5). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx The authors begin this article by discussing what a broad term assessment is and how educators should view their own classroom tests as assessments which provide essential information about students’ achievement and where any gaps in learning may occur. Summative assessments are administered to students at certain times to find out what skills students already know and to find out those skills that they do not know.
Aberdour School Disability Policy Admissions policy In Nursery to Year 3 inclusive, the School operates a non-selective admissions policy. Those prospective pupils seeking entry into Year 4 or above will usually take Mathematics and verbal and/or non-verbal reasoning tests. The purpose of these tests is to satisfy the School that it will be able to educate and develop the prospective pupil to the best of his or her potential and in line with the general standards achieved by the pupil's peers. At the time of application the School invites details of any special needs which a prospective pupil might have, so as to enable the School to consider any adjustments it might need to make. Equal opportunity The School will apply