The start of the 19th century brought many new changes to Europe. Many people at the time saw it in their interest to move to more industrialized cities and towns. Although this contributed to the growth in agriculture and industry; it also led to the growth and congestion of many towns and cities. The overpopulation of these towns and cities led houses to become extremely cramped together with unsanitary and unhealthy conditions to live in. The major problems facing nineteenth-century European cities were the setup of towns and cities that failed to accommodate the overcrowding, and the unsanitary and unhealthy standards of living that caused disease.
One major problem that nineteenth-century European cities faced was how the towns and cities were set up in order to deal with the problem of overcapacity. Because of this, the land of each town and city was being used up to its fullest extent. This led absolutely no room for open areas of land in which buildings were established on the smallest possible lots without any front or backyards; in order to pack the maximum number of people into a given space, where as many as ten people would live. With this little space, public transportation did not exist. Better urban development started when Georges Haussmann, hired by Napoleon III, rebuilt Paris to allow for more open space such as parks and improved housing. The rebuilding of Paris provided a new model for urban planning and inspired modern urbanism throughout Europe. With this newfound open space, public transportation such as the horse-drawn streetcar and later, electric streetcars were used.
Another major problem that faced nineteenth-century European cities were the unsanitary and unhealthy conditions that people lived in. In these town and cities, open drains and sewers flowed down the middle of unpaved streets. And toilet facilities were a large cause of