Ning Lao Tai Tai and the 19th Century

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Ning Lao Tai-t’ai and 19th Century China Ning Lao Tai-t’ai and 19th Century China Ning Lao Tai-t’ai and 19th Century China Ning came of age during a period which just barely post-dated the unequal Imperialist Treaties of the Opium Wars. For the first time in Chinese history they were being forced from a foreign nation to end their isolation and trade with another country not on their terms. Ning was able to see the decline of the Qing Dynasty and the rise of Communism. Anti-foreign sentiment rang high through this period. Culturally this was also the last century before the tradition of foot binding was outlawed. Opium Wars Before the imperialist treaties, foreign trade was restricted to the Guangzhou port of Canton. At this point China was still a self-sufficient agrarian society with no demand for foreign goods. England, France, Russia, Japan, and America were the Imperialist nations requesting more trade ports to be opened, however the British Empire were the most aggressive. The British owned East India Company, was already conducting illegal Opium trade across the China Indian border. In the late 18th Century and in the early 19th Century the British made attempts to diplomatically handle the opening of more trade ports, but the Manchu Emperor of the first meeting Qian-Long and the Emperor of the 2nd meeting Jia-Qing would not succumb to the British demands. Eventually this led to a more forceful approach from the British Empire and would be recorded in history as the Opium Wars. According to Randbir Vohra the Opium trade increased, “from c. 150,000 pounds in 1767 to c. 6 million pounds in 1838” (Vohra, 2000, 25). With the balance of trade shifting in favor of the British, silver was leaving China at an alarming rate. According to Hsin-pao Chang, “the exchange rate in the province of Shandong rose from 1,450 to 1,650 copper cash for 1 silver

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