Although he wanted a democratic unified government, many of his ideas were very radical and idealistic. Mazzini’s ideas were clearly portrayed in the motto of the Roman Republic,”Dio et il popolo” (God and the People) and that Italy should be unified ‘from below’. He wanted the people of Italy to rise up from their high-powered oppressors and stressed that they should be unified by their ‘own efforts’ for fear that one domination would be replaced by another outside influence, Mazzini’s key idea of Nationalism would mean a ‘violent insurrection’ was needed. Some Liberals opposed this idea of violence and instead wanted to work with rulers to gain Constitutions instead. Therefore he had limited appeal and lacked progress and so is a reason for the slow progress of the unification of Italy.
Why was Mussolini appointed Prime Minister in 1922? There are many significant reasons as to why Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister. The main reason however is due to the role of the king. However the Fascist tactics and the role of the socialists also play a big role. The king at the time of Mussolini’s coming to power was King Victor Emmanuel III.
In this essay, I will look at these necessary conditions of Berlsuconi’s success before moving on to an analysis of the role of media and personality politics. Finally, I will evaluate Berlusconi’s alliance strategy and overall political strategy as critical factors behind the breakthrough. The most logical place to start this analysis is by looking at the political environment into which Berlusconi made his entrance. The first and most obvious factor here is the collapse of the Christian Democrats who had occupied the centre ground of Italian Politics for almost 50 years. The rise of a more independent and audacious judiciary had lead to what Paul Ginsborg calls a “rising tide of legalism” (Ginsborg, DATE: 58) that came in the form of the “manu pilute” investigations.
To what extent was Austria responsible for the failure of Italian revolutionaries in the years of 1820-1849? It can be argued that Austria was largely responsible for Italian revolutions failing between the years of 1820-1849. They were a dominant force within Italy and would not allow themselves to be overthrown. However it is clear that other factors also had a significant impact over the failure of Italian revolutionaries, such as the fragmentation within Italy at the time, the misguidance of the revolts, the Pope was withdrawing his support of the revolts and their figurehead Mazzini being in exile. Revolutions between 1820-1821, 1831-1832 and 1948-1949 were all ultimately overthrown to some extent by Austrian force.
Ovid/Vergil Composition Publius Ovidius Naso was born in March of 43 BC in Sulmo, Rome. The son of a wealthy equestrian family, he was automatically set up for public work. His father wished for him to become a great orator but those dreams were quelched when his son went to Rome to study rhetoric and law. While in Rome, Ovid explored his love of poetry. By the time he turned thirty Ovid had already been married and divorced a few times.
It can be suggested that Mazzini’s ideas were a contributing reason for the slow progress of national unity in Italy in the years 1815-1848. However, it is clear that Mazzini’s ideas weren’t the main reason for the slow progress of national unity in Italy. Mazzini’s appeal may have been very narrow and idealistic because of its revolutionary nature; there are other factors that also need to be examined. The most important factor would be the powerful influence of Austria. Others that can be considered to be the reason for slow progress are the nature of the states at this time with reactionary governments and their leaders, regionalism, lack of mass support and Mazzini’s ideas.
It is agreed by most, that Napoleon III, Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew, was a key factor in the unification but the real debate lies within the question; was he a hindrance or a assistance? It was certain that Napoleon left his mark on Italy, involving himself immensely, but there is debate over how many states he affected in a positive way. On one hand, and very importantly, when talking about Lombardy’s annexation from Piedmont, there is no doubt that Napoleon played a large factor. Napoleon and Italian nationalist Cavour met at Plombieres were an agreement was formed. A war was planned between Austria and a mixture of French and Piedmontese troops, with a hope for victory in favour of Piedmont.
Rome had once led an empire that dominated the world. But that was long ago and now other European powers had empires (Britain, France) or wanted them. Hitler came to power in 1933, begun to rearm Germany and looked to re-unite Germany with Austria. Mussolini looked for a way to show Italy’s strength to the rest of Europe. Italy had tried and failed to conquer Abyssinia in 1896.
How effectively did Mussolini consolidate his power in Italy after 1922? Mussolini used many techniques and methods to consolidate and secure his power after his appointment of prime minister in 1922. Some of the ways Mussolini tried to consolidate his power was by the use of propaganda and the cult of the Duce, through the media and architecture or through repression and intense terror and controlling the state and power within it. All of these factors had both effective aspects and limited aspects in regards to achieving the consolidation of Mussolini’s power. Although, in my opinion I do not believe that Mussolini effectively consolidated his power in Italy after 1922 as although he had much success ultimately there were still aspects within Italy that were a danger to Mussolini’s power.
When Europe finally emerged out of the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, Europeans despised everything about the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, queens and kings were decided by “divine power” which opposes the notion of rulership in Machiavelli’s The Prince. Erasmus, another key player in the Renaissance, once stated, “Men are made, not born” which totally contradicts the idea of divine power. Another new idea Machiavelli developed in The Prince that goes against Middle age thought was to use soldiers that one possesses in their state, instead of using mercenaries or auxiliary soldiers. In the Renaissance, the humility of the Middle Ages was completely thrown out, only to be replaced with people wearing extravagant clothing and consuming themselves in their image.