New Kingdom Egypt Essay

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The golden age of pharaonic and imperial power, referred to by modern historians as ‘New Kingdom Egypt’, saw many changes in the way Egypt was governed. Early invasion by the Hyksos, rebellions in the south and the ‘rise of Theban Kings’ all greatly impacted upon Egyptian military tactics and foreign policy, which were continually developing throughout this period. Each Pharaoh used their strengths to transform Egypt into a superior country through colonization leading to a more diverse culture. The “shepherd kings” , or Hyksos, as referred to by modern historians, domination of the Delta region provided a catalyst for the consolidation of early New Kingdom and stimulus for the establishment of a strong government and administration system. Originating from strongly fortified towns in the Asiatic region, they had access to the latest military technology. Egypt’s primitive weapons and haphazard army was no match for this “Well equipped fighting machine” and so, to expel them and regain land, status and wealth; they needed to adopt such weaponry. Probably the most important weapon was the War Chariot, which enabled the conquest of the Near East, by allowing mobile warfare, thus obtaining valuable trade routes and resources. They differed from traditional Egyptian Chariotry, having additional stability (for rough terrains), speed (pulled by two horses), and size (two warriors: a driver and a fighter). The stronger, more accurate and flexible Hyksos’s composite bow was used by the fighter, which meant less hand-to-hand combat. Foot soldiers used a ‘khepesh’ or curved sword. To many historians, the most important militaristic idea that the Hyksos brought to Egypt was that of a professional army. The previously untrained haphazard volunteer network posed no great threat to the Hyksos, and so, the army needed to become a professional force to regain Egypt’s dignity
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