When blood glucose decreases the Lateral hypothalamus is activated, giving you the feeling of hunger. Research into the role of the hypothalamus in eating behaviour began in the 1950s when ANAND & BROBECK found that damage to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in rats caused a condition called aphagia (absence of eating) and that stimulation of LH leads to excessive feeding behaviour. They concluded they had found the ‘on switch’ for eating behaviour, the neurotransmitter ‘NPY’ is particularly important in turning on eating. MARIE ET AL (2005) found when they genetically manipulated mice so that they did not make NPY; they found no subsequent decrease in their feeding behaviour. However the researcher suggested that hunger stimulated by injections by NPY might actually be an experimental artefact, in the flood of NPY during experimental manipulations could cause behaviour not like that caused by normal amounts of neurotransmitter.
Outline and evaluate explanations for the success/failure in dieting One explanation for the success or failure in dieting can be explained using the “restraint theory.” Restrained eating is a common characteristic of dieting and research shows that 89% of the female population in the UK consciously restrain their food intake in some point of their lives. Herman and Polivy (1894) developed the boundary model in an attempt to explain why dieting may lead to overeating. According to this model, hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum, and satiety works to keep intake below some maximum level. Dieters tend to have a larger range between hunger and satiety levels as it takes them longer to feel hungry and more food to satisfy them. Restrained eaters have a self-imposed desired intake.
Satiation is stimulated by an increase in the hormones leptin, insulin, and cholecystokinin. The hypothalamus strives to achieve energy balance in the body over time by monitoring these 5 neurotransmitters. The more probable factors contributing to our eating behavior is psychological. Both classical and operant conditioning comes in to play here. Just as the appearance of the bell caused Pavlov’s dog to salivate; our body has become conditioned to eat at certain times in the day.
If blood levels rise and the balance is not maintained in this sense then a person can become extremely tired and fatigued. When you eat your blood glucose will rise naturally. Insulin is a regulatory hormone that will be secreted by the pancreas in order to reach homeostasis. Insulin will correspond with the amount of glucose that begins to rise and work to maintain a normal balance by aiding glucose from the blood and into the cells. The blood glucose level will begin to fall as a result in order to maintain normal range.
This causes frustration and reduce the willingness to eat. Muscle tone disintegrates in accordance to this condition. Slowed digestion in the stomach can delay stomach emptying and build fullness and increased risk for ulcers. Other major negative effects are the process of intestinal absorption slows down effecting the absorption/breakdown of proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, lactose, calcium, constipation, the person pancreatic function diminishes and the liver becomes smaller in size and weight (Bernstein; Luggen). 2.
Sugary- this is the 1 that people with diabetes should stay clear of, this is due to the “glucose getting into your bloodstream fast, this could cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels”. (Rudy, 1999, Page 24)This is not saying that you cannot eat this kind of food; it just means that you should only eat it in small quantities. Starchy- this is the one that is okay for diabetics to eat “These foods increase the blood glucose even though they are not sweet in taste. The body digests them and breaks them down into glucose (sugar).
Failure to do so results in their immune system producing antibodies which attacks the lining of their bowel causing them to have abdominal pains, constipation/diarrhoea, bloating, difficulty in gaining weight in childhood or maintaining weight in adulthood and anaemia. Because it affects the way their body can absorb nutrients it can also lead to osteoporosis and increase their risk of bowel cancer. Some foods can be bought that are labelled ‘gluten free’ but tend to be more expensive. • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is the term used to describe a condition when on inspection of the bowel everything seems normal, but the person suffers with symptoms like abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating and constipation/diarrhoea. The person may want to keep a food diary to help discover which foods make their condition worse and avoid them in the future.
Metabolic rate is how fast or slow a person burns off the energy that they get from food whilst at rest, this can determined whether the person puts on weight or loses weight.  Anabolism 6 6 Anabolism often called Constructive metabolism or biosynthesis is the building up of things.  It is the supporting of new cells, and keeping the body tissues in a healthy condition. Also, it stores energy
3. Delirium Tremens This most serious ethanol withdrawal syndrome typically begins 3–5 days after cessation of drinking and lasts for up to 72 hours. It is characterized by confusion, agitation, fever, sweating, tachycardia, hypertension, and hallucinations. Death may result from concomitant infection, pancreatitis, cardiovascular collapse, or trauma. Treatment consists of diazepam, 10–20 mg intravenously, repeated every 5 minutes as needed until the patient is calm, and correction of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and hypoglycemia.
An example of a local hormone is Gastrin which is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining in our stomach. Its purpose is to promote gastric juice secretion. Gastrin is released by G cells and is regulated/stimulated by the amino acids and peptides found in the food we are consuming entering our stomachs. b) There are two different chemical classes of hormones that interact differently with the target-cell. Outline the two classes of hormones, how they are transported in the blood and how they exert their general mechanism of actions at the target cell.