Discuss explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting (25 marks) The cognitive behavioural approach looks to explain dieting through positive and negative thought processes. The main reason why people want to lose weight is because they have negative views on their own body image. Herman and Polivy try to explain why restraint might actually increase eating, through their boundary model, which is that when dieting there is a conflict between the physiological need for food and the cognitive control over what should be eaten whilst dieting. The problem is that after the first 5-10% initial weight los the person begins to reach a plateau and the weight loss stops. A further problem is that at this point the body’s psychological needs and desire to maintain a certain set point over ride the cognitive control of the diet.
1. Discuss one or more biological explanations of eating disorders (8 marks + 16 marks)The biological approach would suggest that anorexia nervosa (AN) has a physical cause, anirregularity arising from the body or the brain, such as hypothalamus dysfunction or an imbalanceof neurotransmitters.The hypothalamus dysfunction theory works around the idea that animals have a ‘set weight’ thatis correct for their body, should that weight increase or decrease the body should makeadjustments to regulate food intake to return the individual to their ‘set weight’.The hypothalamus is thought to have great control over our eating behaviour. The lateralhypothalamus (LH) is considered to be the feeding switch that makes an individual begin to feedand the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is the satiety switch which makes an individual ceasefeeding. Garfinkel and Gardner (1982) suggested that a disturbed hypothalamus may be the causeof AN, they proposed that any disturbance could lead to either the LH or VMH to be constantlyactivated. In order to explain AN it is most likely that the LH is damaged and the individual neverreceives a hunger signal to begin feeding and that the VMH becomes over activated and theindividual receives a constant full signal.
Slim-Fast vs. HCG Amber Padgett COM/155 June 23, 2013 Kimberly Parry Slim-Fast vs. HCG People are always looking for different ways to lose weight. There are many over the counter diet supplements to choose from, but two common diets choices are Slim-Fast and the HCG diet. HCG is a low calorie diet for people who want to lose weight quickly, whereas, Slim-Fast is a moderate weight loss plan. Both plans have specific guidelines and calorie allowances that will be discussed. Although the Slim-Fast and HCG diets are both popular diets used for weight loss, the HCG diet poses higher health risks then Slim-Fast.
Outline and evaluate explanations for the success/failure in dieting One explanation for the success or failure in dieting can be explained using the “restraint theory.” Restrained eating is a common characteristic of dieting and research shows that 89% of the female population in the UK consciously restrain their food intake in some point of their lives. Herman and Polivy (1894) developed the boundary model in an attempt to explain why dieting may lead to overeating. According to this model, hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum, and satiety works to keep intake below some maximum level. Dieters tend to have a larger range between hunger and satiety levels as it takes them longer to feel hungry and more food to satisfy them. Restrained eaters have a self-imposed desired intake.
A person can dye their hair, undergo plastic surgery, or tan their skin. Our bone structure is predetermined but we are able to modify our body composition by developing proper eating habits and daily physical activity. There are a number of physiological factors that occur during our bodies ultradian rhythms that influence our eating behavior. Early studies believed that the feeling of hunger was brought on by a sudden drop in blood glucose levels, but we have since learned that the fluctuation of glucose levels is very minimal and will actually return to normal with or without consuming food. New studies revealed the discovery of the hormone ghrelin.
Doctors have found biological connections between fat, insulin, and the high blood sugar levels that deﬁne the disease. The CDC estimates that 55 percent of adult diabetics are obese, signiﬁcantly more than the 31 percent prevalence of obesity in the general population. And as obesity has become more common, so, too, has diabetes, suggesting that one may cause the other. Yet the critics dispute claims that diabetes is soaring (even among children), that obesity is the cause, and that weight loss is the solution. A 2003 analysis by the CDC found that “the prevalence of diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed, and of impaired fasting glucose did not appear to increase substantially during the 1990s,” despite the sharp rise in obesity.
It is important to consume of your daily protein because your body begins to take away from your carbohydrates and lipids to make up for your lost protein, which can result in drowsiness or weight loss/gain, and it can also cause illness. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids are referred to as macronutrients. Macronutrients are substances needed for growth and metabolism, and they also provide energy (“Macronutrients”, 2004). When we consume too much or too little of a macronutrient we can become more susceptible to illness or disease. For example, two diseases that develop from too little protein are Kwashiorkor and Marasmus, and too diseases that develop because of too much carbohydrates and lipids are Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.
For many people, solutions to weight gain will be found both in new dietary behaviors and in medicines that come from labs where researchers study how the body burns and stores fat. To the extent that obesity is the result of a child’s inability to say “no” to a supersized meal, we should teach restraint just as Critser advises. But his behavioral fix will not work for everyone, and parents should be instructed on what to do when teaching restraint, alone, fails to keep their children reasonably trim. A more serious problem with Critser’s argument 5 is his use (twice) of the word “gluttony” and the judgmental attitude it implies. Early in the essay Critser argues that American parents need “to promulgate .
The first major muscle movement occurs when food or liquid is swallowed. Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves. Swallowed food is pushed into the oesophagus, which connects the throat above with the stomach below. At the junction of the oesophagus and stomach, there is a ring like muscle, called the lower oesophageal sphincter, closing the passage between the two organs. As food
Although the HCG and the Cabbage Soup diets take different approaches to weight reduction, each employ extreme measures for dangerously rapid weight loss. In comparing the low calorie intake of both diets, this will include some of the foods each diet allows, the fact that both guarantee extreme weight loss in a set short amount of time, and how each method is administered. Also the cost of the diet plans, the possible side effects& drawbacks, and the length of each plan. First, where did these diets come from? Although it is thought by many to be one of the newer fad diets, the HCG diet was developed in the 1940s by an Endocrinologist named Dr. Simeons.