Neologisms in Ukrainian and English Essay

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1. General linguistic theory. 1.1 The definition and the concept of neologisms. Neologisms are defined as "newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense" (Newmark 1988: 140). He points out the types of neologisms : old words with new senses, new coinages, derived words, abbreviations, collocations, eponyms, phrasal words transferred words, acronyms and pseudo- neologisms (ibid). These items can pose a great challenge for the translator as they cannot be found in dictionaries. Therefore it is the translator who has to create new words and expressions as equivalences during the translation process. Newmark (1988: 143) states that "any kind of neologism should be recreated; if it is a derived word it should be replaced by the same or equivalent morphemes , if it is also phonaesthetic, it should be given phonemes producing analogous sound effects". It is not only the translator s right to create neologisms but, in a literary text, "it is his duty to re- create any neologism he meets" (ibid : 149). Neology is one of the many translation problems that have no standardized solutions. In journalism, neologisms occur very often for their ability and power of information condensation and their expressive effect. Translators have to render them in the target language by using quite complicated reasoning, which involves many factors, such as text type, creative traditions, literary norms and conventions that are familiar to the reader of a certain society. Various theorists have addressed the problem of neology, although the focus of each of them is different. Some have attempted to explain the reasons that enable the occurrence of neologisms in a language system. Aitchison (1991:89) says that their occurrence is justified by three causes: fashion, foreign influence and social need . Wardhaugh (2002:188) says that a new lexicon can be

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