In the late 18th century an air of revolution had been established in France and Haiti. These two revolutions were significant in their own aspect, both nourished from enlightenment ideals. Despite their many similarities the revolutions did have different outcomes. The Haitian Revolution maintained its original goal of freeing the slaves and independence while the French Revolution went to the extremes and lost its original goal for creating a new form of representative government. The French revolution and the Haitian revolution had many similarities.
17th Century saw such a flowering of culture, because it was the time era where new arts and literature were introduced. Such as mannerism, replacing the old Renaissance painting. It reflected the environment in which it deliberately try to break down the high renaissance principle of balance, harmony, and moderation. Baroque – classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth century religious revival. Replaced mannerism.
The Social Contract, a philosophical masterpiece written by the famous French writers Jean Jacques Rousseau, greatly influenced the course of the French Revolution. Rousseau’s pioneering conception of General Will enlightened the mainstream thinkers as well as the ordinary french people in the late 18th Century France. One of those political activist and writer, Emmanueal Joseph Sieyès( 1748-1836) justified the political legitimacy of the Third Estate. He argues that the aristocracy is acting against the General Will whereas the Third Estates represents the General Will of the French people and are thus the legitimate representative of the nation. Sieyes’s admitted the fact that Third Estate represents the General Will.
The French Revolution of 1789 was a scramble for social, political, and economic equality between the three Estate Generals. Members of the third Estate General identified economic, social, and political equality with the 18th century enlightened movement which advocated reason as a means of establishing an authoritative system of aesthetics, ethics, and efficiency in government (Belle, 2007). The philosophes, who were the pioneers of the enlightenment, sought to transform the oppressive French monarchy into a moderate government led by intellectuals. The philosophes were not revolutionists but reformers who challenged the French citizens to think critically and rationally. By the 17th century, the French citizens became very knowledgeable in the fields of science, math, art, literature, politics, etc.
Focus question: In what ways were American Revolution, French revolution and 17th century British Revolutions alike? In what ways were they different? AOI: Community and Service (I’ve chosen C&S as my AOI because in this essay I am going to talk about the differences and similarities between French and American Revolution and the difference is mostly based on the way community represented it.) The enlightenment on revolutions in 18th century was a move in European and American philosophy in 18th century. The term “enlightenment” represented the idea that reason should be the beginning point on which the authority should be established.
To what extent can one consider Jean-Jacques Rousseau to represent both Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment thought? Jeans-Jacques Rousseau, although indisputably hailed as one of the most important philosophers in eighteenth century Europe, remains an elusive figure whose writings and ideologies cannot be neatly and clearly defined. The Genevan, arriving in France in the early 1740’s as a would-be Philosophe, rubbed shoulders with the most prominent thinkers of the French Enlightenment, such as Diderot, d’Alembert, Holbach and Voltaire, in the Parisian salons: the social base of the Republic of Letters. However, he may also be represented as an ex, or even anti-philosophe as Rousseau’s ideas grew further apart from his contemporaries during the 1750s. According to Hampson, ‘It may be argued with equal plausibility that Rousseau was either one of the greatest writers of the Enlightenment or it’s most eloquent and effective opponent’.
Prior to the French Revolution, France was divided into various regions, ruled over by a king and noblemen. The only thing that could somewhat link everyone together was the belief that they were to serve the king who at the time was Louis XVI. This belief however by the end of the 18th century started to see a huge change. The French people slowly started to see themselves not as "subjects" of the king, but as "citizens" of the new nation of France. This change in how the people saw themselves as, can be thought of as the beginning of nationalism.
IWT1 Task 1 Emily Campbell 000452383 Western Governor’s University A1: Realism Realism in its earliest form appeared in the 18th century in reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Neoclassicism. It then became an organized movement in France in 1848 after the fall of the monarchy of Louis-Philippe. During this period of Napoleons Second Empire, Realism flourished. Realism focused more on the real life depictions of its subjects. The artists tried to be as straightforward as possible and not idealize the subjects.
It was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that wanted to advance knowledge and reform society. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in Church and state. The ruling princes, endorsed and promoted figures and even attempted to apply their ideas of government. The Enlightenment was strong until about 1790-1800, when the emphasis on reason caved in to Romanticism’s emphasis on emotion and a Counter Enlightenment took over. 3The center of the Enlightenment was France, where is was based in the salons and culminated in the great Encyclopedia (1751-72).
Chris Hooker World History Enlightenment Period in Europe The age of Enlightenment took place between the time when Louis XIV died (1715), and the coup d'etat (1799, when Napoleon came into power. It is during this time period that the French Revolution occurred, as well as several other stages of reform. Strongly influenced by the pertinent reformations, the people began to exit the times of darkness, and entered a time of growth. The ideas of growth, reason, and natural law built a strong foundation for the enlightenment. (Outram, 16-80) Incredible faith in human reason as well as the advancement of secularism was an important goal of European countries during this time period.