The female mothers are very affectionate and protective over the young and the rest of their family. The young chimps are also very dependant on their mothers for necessities such as; food, shelter and warmth. In the film, Jane set out a pile of bananas so she would be able to observe the chimp’s behaviors. She realized that the stronger, more dominant males were the ones that took most of the bananas, while the females, and the younger ones stayed back. Just like humans Jane Goodall discovered that the chimpanzees show emotions when it comes to death.
/ The caregiver did not necessarily need to be the infant’s mother, the infants were able to form attachment with anybody who showed them an adequate level of comfort and responded to the infant sensitively. / A further study that contradicts the learning theory is Harlow’s Rhesus monkey studies. The study found that despite the cloth mother having no feeding apparatus, the infant monkeys formed an attachment with the cloth mother. / Harlow concluded that despite the infant monkey having physiological cravings, such as hunger, they still preferred the cloth mother, due to the comfort that they were given from the cloth mother. Question 2 Outline and evaluate learning theory as an explanation of attachment.
This change to the method meant the chimpanzees were with the Gardner’s right from when they were born, and they were in the human environment right from birth, so that environment was natural to them because they don’t know any different. This will help the study because they will be interacting in ASL with human companion’s right from when they are born. Secondly, their arrival was staggered so that they grew up together like siblings. They were company and role models for each-other which made the environment much more naturalistic. Unlike washoe who had no company of any other chimpanzees, only the company and role models of her companions (humans), which meant that her environment was not as natural.
Discuss the Nature-Nurture debate, as applied to attachment area of developmental psychology. “The reason why the infant in arms wants to perceive the presence of its mother is only because it already knows by experience that she satisfies all of its needs without delay. (Freud 1926, cited in Holmes 1993: p. 63) Freud lay the ground works for the research that has been carried out and is continuously being investigated; the question; What is the nature of the bond linking one human being to another and how does it develop? According to Martin et el, (2007) evidence suggests that human infants are innately able to produce special behaviours that shape and control the behaviour of their carers. Bowlby put forward the principle of monotropy, believing that the infant displays a strong innate tendency to form an attachment with one significant person, not necessarily, but usually the mother.
Descriptive Narrative Essay Sandra Cisneros' excerpt "The Monkey Garden" was influential and described the conventions of puberty & growing up. The growth from childhood to adolescence is a very gritty time, the age of knowing and not knowing what are the right decisions or not. Going from a safe place like a favorite playground with old friends to the unknown and new people is the hardest part of getting older. Esperanza was introduced as loving the Monkey Garden, her safe place as a child, but soon her oasis transformed. As young offspring there are places we all believed as our own "safe zone" and evidently we're taught life lessons from the time spent there.
He showed that for survival they ‘imprint’ on the first moving object they see, this is usually the mother and they follow this in order to be fed and to ensure safety. Lorenz showed that if the Goslings did not imprint properly, or on the wrong object they may grow up unable to mate effectively. John Bowlby was inspired by Lorenz’s research and applied the principles of imprinting to the human infant-primary caregiver relationship and developed his evolutionary theory of attachment in 1969. According to Bowlby the infant has a biological urge to form attachments. His theory proposed that attachment was important for survival, since infants are physically helpless and need an adult to feed, care and protect them.
Author Stephen Gould nailed it on the head when he named his essay, “Nonmoral Nature.” His essay provokes our thoughts on nonhuman motivation. Since animals do not have a rationale backing up their actions, then they must act solely on motivation. One potential reasoning behind an animal’s motivation arises from the passion and love toward its own offspring (Gould 1209). This theory can be correlated to Nancy Kress’s short story, “Beggars in Spain.” In this story, a genetic break-through leaves the option open for parents to decide whether or not they want their children to be genetically modified to not need sleep. When considering what thoughts went through Roger Camden’s mind while choosing to have a sleepless daughter, is it particularly intriguing to connect his logic to animal instinct; It leaves us speculating whether he did so because it gave her an competitive upper-hard, or was it on the basis of true love to which he thought she would want this for herself.
(3.1) Explain the benefits of key worker/person system in early years settings The attachment bonds of babies and children All babies and children require having warm, interacting and can responding to the needs when crying and needing to be safe. This links to the main area of each child’s future relationships. Mostly, all babies and children experience bond with their senses and this includes love that impacts a child and help change their learning as this happens, children develop to be more curious and create friendships with other children and can be good at school. At hospitals, after the babies are born then the midwife brings the baby to the mother which involves skin to skin bonding and the nurses encourage feeding from the mother to the baby. At settings, the key person will have warm and affectionate bond with babies and children but they do not replace the parents and if the key person has a long term illness so two people will care for a child in the setting.
While this can certainly be helpful to a therapist working with a client it cannot be taken for granted as there could be other explanations for the client experiencing problems which I would like to develop further. Even though Freud called the developmental stages psychosexual, the sexual does not actually have anything to do with sex but with receiving pleasure. So in the first stage approximately during the first 18 months of a child’s life he is experiencing everything through his mouth and the stage is therefore called oral. The baby gets a lot of pleasure out of sucking at the mother’s breast and we can see that babies of that age are putting everything into their mouths. Freud also believed that fixation to a developmental stage happens if that child gets either tool little of too much pleasure throughout the duration of one particular stage.
Oysters are known as one of the more traditional aphrodisiacs | "I'm not sure we'll be able to understand it fully," he said. "But my belief is that our emotions have evolved from behaviours and emotions that are in the animal kingdom. "I don't think that the way a mother loves her baby is that different to a mother's love in a chimpanzee or a rhesus monkey - or even a rat." In animals, scientists have observed that a chemical called oxytocin is involved in developing a bond between a mother and her young. Professor Young believes it is very likely that a similar process is going on in humans.