Nature and Nurture Debate Essay

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The objective of this essay is to discuss the influence of nature and nurture on an aspect of human development using attachment as reference point. As part of the discourse the paper will examine the views of various theorists in the nature-nurture argument and how they are used to explain the basis of attachment. The conclusion that will be derived is that both nature and nurture, and not one of them but a combination of both can be used in approaching different problems and behavioural predictions. When infant are born, they depend on others for their survival for example the provision of food, love, care and protection, they later form relationship with one person or the other, this process is called attachment. Behaviour like crying, smiling, grasping, eye contact is all in response to interaction with the people around or the environment. Attachment is a close emotional bond that is formed by one person towards the other (Bowlby, 1969). In his theory, he believed that children are brought into the world through biological process then form attachment with others and later be the basis of their survival. He further proposed that babies will cling to their mothers naturally not because of the love and care but due to nature aspect of survival, safety and security. Lorenz (1965) and Harlow (1958) illustrated that imprinting has short term survival he divided some goose eggs into groups, one part was hatched by their mothers and the other part in an incubator. The other part that was hatched by their mothers started following their mother while the second group hatched in the incubator started to follow Lorenz, the conclusion was that there are “critical periods” in the development of the brain and behaviour. Harlow (1959) in his own study breeds rhesus monkeys without their mothers but with ‘substitute mothers’. He found out that they spent time with the

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