The mortality rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders is significantly higher than others Australians influencing the overall health status of ATSI to be worse than other Australians. Deaths in ATSI spread over all ages compared to non-indigenous which is mostly concentrated in older age groups. Mortality rates for indigenous males and females were around twice as high as non-indigenous. Aborigines are also around 4 times as likely to die from an avoidable cause. The main causes of death for ATSI include circulatory diseases, cancer, injury (assault, accidents, and intentional self harm), respiratory diseases and diabetes.
The health status of Indigenous people is extremely poorer than that of the general population, for example Indigenous people have higher infant mortality rates and also have a lower life expectancy in comparison to non-Indigenous people. The Australian Government has implemented a number
If people are separated from the society they will feel isolated and could lead to depression, anxiety, eating disorders, financial problems and/or health problems. For example of a social class marginalisation is when the high class get the majority of the medication than people who really need it, especially from the low class society. They would feel that it is normal just because they don’t have the money to pay the medication, that’s why most of them just die from untreated sickness. Disempowerment is when an individual or group of people feel less powerful or less confident from others. It might because of their age or gender, age because if you are working in a hospital and you are the youngest among the group the elderly will dominate which make you feel disempowerment.
Although birth rate is high, so is infant mortality, so there is a large drop between children aged 0-5 to 6-10 and the pyramid takes a large indent from a wide base. The pyramid peaks at a low age due to a low life expectancy. Stage 2 of the DTM is early expanding. The falling death rate but remaining high population causes the structure to remain with a wide base. But the rapidly increasing total population as death rate falls to around 15/1000 causes the pyramid to grow taller and life expectancy increases.
At the time of the Welfare Reform unemployment rates were below four percent. Several employers was looking for low wageworkers. The economy was remarkably strong at the time of the Welfare Reform Act (Holcomb & Martinson, 2002). The biggest difference between The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Welfare Reform Act is the strength of the economy. Unemployment rates are higher now than they were when the Welfare Reform Act was set into motion.
Sociology is playing an important role in the alarming health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Although statistics are slowly improving, currently Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people endure much poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous Australians. For the 2005–2007 period, life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 67 years for Indigenous males and 73 years for Indigenous females, representing gaps of 11.5 and 9.7 years, respectively, compared with all Australians. In 2008, almost one-third of young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (aged 16–24 years) had high or very high levels of psychological distress. Indigenous young people died at a rate 2.5 times as high as that for non-Indigenous young people Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–14 years died at more than twice the rate of non-Indigenous children.
This is due to social class. The higher the class the higher the standard of care. Researchers found that some of the 7500 deaths that are among people younger than the age of 65 could have been prevented could have been prevented if inequalities in wealth narrowed to their 1983 levels. If a baby girl is born in leeds she is more than twice as likely to die in the first year of life compared to an infant girl growing up in a dorset town. Alot of studies into health inequalities rely on morality, death, and morbidity, illness, data.
3/1/12 Health disparities refer to differences between groups of people. These differences can affect how frequently a disease affects a group, how many people get sick, or how often the disease causes death. Many different populations are affected by disparities. These include: Racial and ethnic minorities, Residents of rural areas, Women, children, and the elderly persons with disabilities. Health disparities are gaps in the quality of health and health care that mirror differences in socioeconomic status, racial and ethnic background, and education level.
Those who identify as Aboriginal maintain a lower health status than non-Aboriginal individuals, as they are more likely to suffer from depression, disease, and injury. As a result, Aboriginal individuals also have a lower life expectancy than other Canadian citizens. “According to Health Canada, in 2001 the average life expectancy for First Nations men was 70.4 years, compared to 77.1 for the general population; the corresponding figures for women were 75.5 versus 82.2” (Kirmayer & Valaskakis, 2009). The fundamental cause of these health inequalities and discrepancies can be attributed to social determinants of health. As Mikkonen and Raphael (2010) explain, simply identifying as Aboriginal has negative implications on ones health.
For example, a study was done on the Pukapukans of the Cook Islands, the Europeanized New Zealand Maori, and the developing Rarotangans. The results were then compared to evaluate disease rate. The Pukapukans were not economically developed and had low levels of imported sugar and salt and low levels of heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. In Rarotonga, economic success was introducing town life, so sugar and salt intakes nearly tripled, dramatically increasing the rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. In New Zealand Maori (which had been Europeanized), gout, diabetes, and heart disease were much higher than the rates in Pukapuka.