Aquinas considered that by using our reason to reflect on our human nature we could discover our specific end purpose. Aquinas used the ideas of Aristotle and the Stoics as an underpinning for Natural Law saying- human beings have an essential rational nature given by God in order for us to live and flourish. Aristotle said even without knowledge of god, reason can discover the laws that lead to human flourishing. The Stoics said Natural Laws are universal and unchangeable and should be used to judge of particular societies. We use this is help us choose the right moral action is situations.
A scientifically accepted general principle supported by a substantial body of evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussion or investigation (Lincoln et al.,1990). Again in simple terms, a theory explains how nature works. Can be modified. In conclusion, scientific laws and theories officially do not have the same meaning. I can understand how people can confuse these two words for having the same
Compte argues that sociology should be based on the methodology of the natural sciences and that it would result in 'invariable laws' within society. The patterns that are observed whether they are in nature or in society can all be explained the same way through finding facts that cause them. According to Compte sociology is therefore a science as like science it consists of gathering information about the social world, analysing data and making conclusions on the social laws which govern society. Durkheim although a positivist criticised Compte, he argued that in sociology could only be considered a natural science if it was studied objectively and so social facts were studied as objects. Though this is often difficult as social facts tend to be unnoticeable therefore sociologists must avoid being bias when developing their theories and concepts.
Hard determinism is the theory that human behaviour and actions are wholly determined by external factors, and therefore humans do not have genuine free will or ethical accountability. There are several different supporting views for this belief. Hard determinism is underpinned by the work of Isaac Newton’s theory of scientific laws which is that we are completely governed by these laws. According to these laws one does not have moral responsibility for their actions as they were predetermined by a ‘higher power’. Hence why, natural laws such as gravity and motion assist in forming the basis for the cause and effect that fills the discussion of hard determinism.
2. Describe the criteria for admissibility of scientific evidence as laid out in Frye v. United States. The criteria used for admissibility of scientific evidence as in the Frye v. United States was the systolic blood pressure deception test known today as the lie detector test. 3. What document offers an alternative to the Frye standard that some courts believe espouses a more flexible standard for admitting scientific evidence?
established a laboratory school 3. 1904: Columbia, to work on application of psychology to educational and philosophical problems B.1896: "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" 1 . attacked molecularism, elementism, and reductionism of reflex arc 2. suggested reflex is a circle rather than an arc 3. behavior cannot be reduced to sensorimotor elements 4. consciousness cannot be meaningfully analyzed into elements 5. artificial analysis removes all meaning, leaves a construct 6. behavior should be treated in terms of its significance to the organism in adapting to the environment 7. proper subject for psychology: study of the total organism as it functions in its environment 8. consciousness results in appropriate responses for survival 9. functional psychology: study of the organism in use 10. argued structure and function cannot be meaningfully separated 11. influenced development of the philosophical framework for functionalism VII. James Rowland Angell (1869-1949) A. Career 1 .
Question 8: What is meant by ‘biological determinism’? Biological determinism is the theory that everything is completely determined by a person’s genes. It denies the idea of the environment or surroundings affect a person’s behavior. This theory is on the nature side (genetics) of the nature vs. nurture (environment) debate. Charles Darwin and Francis Galton are the major psychologists that defend this theory.
What can you ascertain about this type of genre from reading this example? What are its conventions? (If you wish to include any sources in your paper, make sure you document them correctly.) * What is the writer’s purpose? What is Gawande arguing?
This concept of the Ubermensch was Nietzsche’s new type of philosopher, who would overcome the values derived from the concept god. Nietzsche introduces us to his concept in Zarathustra where the death of god is pronounced. By this Nietzsche does not mean the literal death of god, but rather the shedding of humanities belief in god. In the absence of belief in god, humanity is vulnerable to nihilism, Nietzsche recognised that for a time religion gave purpose and derived meaning to humanities existence. The Ubermensch is presented as the creator of new values and solution to this problem.
On the other hand, science is the study of the natural laws governing the world. “An experiment is a question which science poses to Nature, and a measurement is the recording of Nature’s answer.” (Max Planck) Science focuses on universal laws that do not change with time while making new discovery that can be used to change the world such as technology. The debate whether history is a science has become heated in the recent years as history is the study of our past while science is