Hence why, natural laws such as gravity and motion assist in forming the basis for the cause and effect that fills the discussion of hard determinism. However, James Lovelock argued that according to GAIA theory the world changes, adapts and amends itself in order to survive and the human race is of little significance. Humans do not control nature, nature is in control. Philosophical determinism, like all forms of hard determinism, is based on the theory of Universal Causation. This is the belief that everything in the universe including all human actions and choices has a cause.
This is an analogy of things in the natural world for example, the human eye is made of small parts working together to create the purpose of sight, we infer this must be the result of design not chance. The argument for design claims that this demonstrates their must be a designer and they extend the point to all living things ant the entire universe. The designer must therefore be a very powerful intelligence, God. Hume identifies a problem
Explain how a follower of natural law might approach the issue of abortion (25 marks) The theory of natural law is rooted in Aristotle’s theory of the causes and was later developed further by Aquinas. Natural law is today used mostly in the Catholic Church and is used to shape their viewpoint on modern issues such as abortion. Natural law is a deontological and absolute theory that states that by using our inbuilt rationality we can understand the laws of nature and find and achieve our purpose in life. Natural law is a deontological ethic. This means that it considers the act itself and, because it’s absolute, disregards the consequences of the action.
The supernaturalists believe that “the material world is a derivative realm created by God” (Entwistle, 2010, p.98). Both naturalists and supernaturalists lead to the diverse understanding of the truth and its meaning. Whichever perspective we believe in determines the way we view the world and its outcomes.
Explain Natural Law theory Those who have an absolutist approach to ethics have an explanation of where they can get knowledge of morality from and how humans understand right and wrong. Thomas Aquinas was a Christian philosopher and he developed an argument for Natural Law from the work of Aristotle, who said that whatever is natural is unchangeable and has the same power and effect everywhere. His theory is absolutist and deontological as it is a strict guide to be followed no matter what the situation is, meaning it is focused on the ethics around actions. The Roman Catholic Church used it for help and guidance. Aristotle asked the question of ‘how does it happen?’ and believed that every object has a purpose.
Swinburne counted this by claiming that the order in the universe does require an explanation. As some is not even necessary for human survival. Just because we are there to observe it does not make it less unlikely. However Charles Darwin formulated the theory of natural selection which provided an alternative explanation for the design of the world, without reference to creation by God. ‘Natural selection, the blind, unconscious, automatic process which Darwin discovered, and which we now know is the explanation for this existence and apparently purposeful form of all life, has no purpose in mind’ Richard Dawkins supports Darwinian evolution and rejects God.
This fold of the path is the way that Buddha wanted you to see the life, nature, and the world as it really is. It also explains why we have human suffering. This path explains a way to live a virtuous life, with the right view. If a follower can follow this fold then it will clear the path of uncertainty, misinterpretation, and diluted thinking (Allan 1). All of this can be found with a flexible, unlock mind and can be liberating.
A corporation’s culture is comparable to a person’s personality. The culture supplies direction, meaning, and is the basis for action. The way that personality persuades the action of a person, the shared values and beliefs among a company’s members persuades the actions and opinions within the corporation (Pearce & Robinson, 2004, p. 345). Wells Fargo’s new strategy will have a positive effect on the leadership and culture of the company and the stakeholders. Employees enjoy being allowed to take risks because it makes them feel and believe like their opinion matter.
The existence of an object’s qualities cannot exist without the object existing, therefore we know what is presented immediately through our perception is real. We can trust these sensations because actions taken based on our senses allow us to successfully navigate through the world. For example, if one’s senses indicate that a chair is present, it is safe to sit on that chair unless further sense experiences show the chair is broken. Reid (2008) points out “that the operations of our
The term for the use of free will is personal agency. Personal agency refers to a person’s life choices and the paths that the individual goes down, along with the consequences from these actions (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). This theory assumes that all people are basically good inside and that all individuals have an instinctual need to improve themselves, as well as the world around them. Included in the humanistic theory is the emphasis on the personal value of one’s worth, the uniqueness of individual values, and the innovative spirit of human beings. The method is optimistic in nature and concentrates on virtuous human capabilities to prevail over pain, deprivation, and hopelessness (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013).