Aquinas considered that by using our reason to reflect on our human nature we could discover our specific end purpose. Aquinas used the ideas of Aristotle and the Stoics as an underpinning for Natural Law saying- human beings have an essential rational nature given by God in order for us to live and flourish. Aristotle said even without knowledge of god, reason can discover the laws that lead to human flourishing. The Stoics said Natural Laws are universal and unchangeable and should be used to judge of particular societies. We use this is help us choose the right moral action is situations.
i) Analyse the key features of Natural Moral Law  The basis of Natural Moral Law is rooted ion Ancient Greece and the thinking of the stoics. Further developed by Aquinas in the 13tgh century, he fused Aristotle’s original thinking and his faith in Catholicism which resulted in the recognisable form we are familiar with today. We generally consider Aquinas to be the main exponent of Natural Law. The theory is deontological and is therefore concerned with the action itself as opposed to the consequences that may be caused. Furthermore, Natural Moral Law is absolute in its nature because it allows no exceptions to its rules and can be applied universally.
Aristotle wrote in the Nicomachean Ethics that natural law is not always the same as that which is just by civil law. Aquinas and Aristotle believed that natural law applies to everyone no matter where you live: “That which is natural is unchangeable and has the same power everywhere, just as fire burns both here and in Persia”, Book V, Chapter 7 of Nicomachean Ethics. Aquinas believed that God had created the world with purpose in mind and that we need to apply reason to work out our purpose. This reason is God’s gift to humanity, and is the means by which human beings can see their telos. There are three levels of law: Eternal: God’s mind (how the universe begun and its purpose), Divine: revealed knowledge through Jesus Christ and Human: rules invented for human communities.
This is the belief that everything in the universe including all human actions and choices has a cause. Thus, all events are causally determined and theoretically predictable; you just need to know the effect of the causes. This is a mechanistic philosophy, put forward in the Cosmological argument by St. Thomas Aquinas. In addition, other philosophers agree with the illusion of moral choice such as John Locke who used a strong analogy in
The divine commands vary in religions but in the end, they all have in common that moral obligations depend on God. Natural law is sometimes described as being deontological because it leads to a set of rules that people have a duty to follow. It is an absolute theory of ethics and was developed by Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas says that the natural laws are universal and unchangeable and should be
Natural law is the theory that an eternal, absolute moral law can be discovered by reason the belief that all laws and morality is constant throughout the universe and, regardless of where you are or what time zone you are in, morality stays constant. For example, murder is considered a wrongdoing in many different countries. Natural law is part of our human nature and contributes for the search of happiness and fulfilment. The reason such morality is remains constant is due to the fact that it was determined by G-d and thus cannot be changed. In order to decide whether an act is 'right' or 'wrong', the primary precepts are used for any action or deed.
5) Knowing that natural beings could not have intelligence without it being given to them by god. Thomas gave his ideas a modern and everyday background. He made three types of laws: natural, positive, and eternal. Natural law prompts people to act in agreement with achieving his goals and governs people’s sense of right and wrong. Positive law is the law of the state, or government, and should always be a sign of natural law.
Natural Law is an ethical theory that if you fulfil something’s natural purpose, then it is fulfilling its goal and therefore is right and just. Natural Law believes that natural order is determined by a supernatural power or being which we must follow. Natural Law was developed by Thomas Aquinas who was a Roman Catholic priest from Italy; he related Aristotle’s theory of Natural Law to Christian’s beliefs in God. Natural Law is a deontological and absolutist theory, where everything has a purpose. There are five primary precepts to Natural Law, Aquinas believed that these precepts came from God.
Natural Moral law is an absolute ethical theory that states that there is natural order to the world we live in. It is believed that is order is established by some supernatural power. Natural Moral law originated in the philosophy of the ancient Greeks, especially that of Aristotle and Aquinas. This theory that is being tested to see if it is the best approach for decision making is not rooted in duty, or an externally
John Locke, who is often credited as the father of human rights and liberalism, maintained that humans were free and equal, and that the ideal society was based on a social contract between the humans and those who governed. He basically employed the concept of natural rights and the social contract to argue that the rule of law should replace absolutism in government, that rulers were subject to the consent of the governed and that individuals had an essential right to life, liberty and property. As we mentioned in class, Thomas Hobbes was the one who started the theory of social contract and developed it elaborately arguing for unlimited authority in a ruler. The intellectual journey of liberalism kept going beyond John Locke with the Enlightenment, a period in the 18th century that shows intellectual penetration that questioned old traditions and influenced monarchies. Some other documents asserting individual rights include 1689 the English Bill of Rights, 1789 the French Declaration on the Rights of Man and Citizen and 1791 the US Constitution and Bill of Rights that all are written precursors to today’s human rights documents.