During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, the Cherokees were forcibly moved west by the United States government. Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died on this forced march, which became known as the "Trail of Tears." The Indian Removal Act was filed under Chapter 168 and it specified that [it is] "an Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi" (Perdue and Green, 110). The act was established by congress in order to limit the amount of territories the Indians inhabited westward. The Indians suffered many casualties during this period; there were estimates that thousands of Indians lives were lost due to exposure, disease and malnourishment.
Life in California Before the Gold Discovery In reading "Life in California Before the Gold Discovery", my first thought is that the Americans appear to have been rather greedy and not trustworthy during that time. Of course, all of the accounts given were given by Californios, and so they are of a biased nature, meaning we don't get to see both sides of the story. It seems to me like they had a good thing going for them, a healthy and prosperous culture where they could all trust one another, and then the greed of the Americans gradually destroyed it and unhinged their society until there was nothing left. The changes brought about by the gold rush made California a very popular place for Americans to settle. The greed of the Americans, combined with becoming a part of the United States made the Californios mistrust Americans and look upon their arrival with fear or anger.
Coronado’s expedition of 1512 through the Southwest constituted Spain’s first contact with the Indians. Once again, expansionism and religious intolerance lead to the oppression of the indigenous people. Until the 1600’s, North America was a useless wasteland with nothing to offer to the Spanish, but South and Central America was fully subjected under European rule. So expansionism drove the Spanish northwards to conquer even more land. The Spanish began to crush the Southwest Indians military, enslave and Christianize them.
Territorial borders shown on maps before and after the French and Indian war illustrate the shift in power that the three predominant powers in the Americas undertook . The French lost almost all of their land, giving everything east of the Mississippi River to the English including Spanish Florida. The rest of their land was given to the Spanish in return for the assistance the Spanish gave them (Doc A). The elimination of the French threat led to future westward expansion and thus more conflicts with Native Americans. In a speech made by the chief of the Iroquois Confederation, Canassatego states that settlers are migrating into Iroquois land and disrupting Indian hunting (Doc B).
The relationship between the English colonists and Native Americans is usually portrayed as black or white. The story of the first Thanksgiving shows the benevolent relationship between the New England settlers and the Wampanoag tribe. The mass genocide of the Native Americans and the brutality of the English toward the natives (and vice versa) shows the onerous relationship between the two cultures. How did the Native Americans and English settlers go from one extreme to the next? Over a period of fifty years, the positive relationship between the cultures deteriorated to one of great toxicity.
148), the movement staged many protests against prejudiced Indian rights leading up to the siege at Wounded Knee. Wounded Knee was a rebellion of the extension of the White government control, by the Indians. The Whites established a government and military quickly after the colonisation of America that pacified the Indians in order to gain control of resources. This is the natural order of colonisation and with this idea combined with the fact that these Indians were educated (as by decree of the very same government), this caused the uprising against their White oppressors by the Indians, (Bodley, 1999, p.60). It seemed a disaster waiting to happen.
After interviewing individuals living in the 1930’s, Mari Sandoz wrote the biography of Crazy Horse, with vivid details regarding cruelty and the governmental overtaking of the Indians’ homeland. Sandoz writes through the eyes of an Indian, using their language style to capture the essence of the times. Although it was sometimes difficult to follow because of my unfamiliarity with the language, there are great lessons to be gained by following the life of Crazy Horse. The United States government, our government, compromised and prepared treaties with the Indians as they tried to capture their homeland. As the Indians were pushed and confined, they were forced to succumb to the all-mighty government who made promises they did not intend to keep and were solely focused on their own interests.
A Historical Report on Native Americans Angela Pusey ETH/125 September 22, 2013 Maria E. Miles, Ph.D. Candidate, LPC, LCDC A Historical Report on Native Americans The story of the Native Americans is one of the most unsettling chapters in American history. From a historian’s perspective, this ethnic group started with unimaginable oppression, warfare, and disease from the moment European immigrants landed in America. Even the name “Indian” was a mistake in their identity. Unfortunately, this label remains today, and we will never know what this race of people would be like today if they were never “discovered”.
Then centuries later, the Indian Removal Act of 1830 where the Indians were removed from their native grounds and put them on reservations. The United States started to colonize the Native Americans in order to make them more social accepted and this caused both negative and positive effects on the Indians and the Indian culture.
While some groups favored escaping white harassment through resettlement, many more opposed the idea of leaving their ancestral homes. Their desire to stay was reinforced by the unhappy experiences of small groups of Cherokees, Delawares, Shawnees, and others who had accepted a land exchange and gone westward between 1785 and 1800. After the War of 1812 and the elimination of the British as a potential ally, Indian removal became a basic item in virtually all treaties with Native groups. In 1817 John C. Calhoun, a strong advocate of Indian removal, was named secretary of war by James Monroe. Calhoun joined forces with the war hero Andrew Jackson and Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan Territory, to urge formal adoption of a removal