Massive loss of lives from war, epidemic, disease, and murder led to a struggle to maintain the values that were drivers of the culture. Above internal issues was the arrival of white society which began to strategically break down the structure of Native American communities by targeting their political system. Another distraction at this time was the growth of alcohol in Native American society and it was a problem in many high ranked officials. Leaders such as Red Jacket, Hendrick Aupaumut, Young King, Logan, Skenandoa, and Handsome Lake were all notorious drunkards, which showed poor leadership and hostile environments. Drinking not only took a toll on leaders but also on the society as a whole because money for meats, vegetables, dry goods, and hardware was being spent on alcohol.
Under this, the remaining land was made available to settlers and orphans under the age of eighteen and other single people less than eighteen received 40 acres. Moreover, under this act, heads of families and single people over eighteen years were given allotments of 160 acres. The reason for doing this was to protect the native Indians from getting swindled. Another answer to what was the purpose of the Dawes Act is that this act aimed at a gendered training, involving farming and agriculture for men and homemaking for Indian women. All this was also an apparent attempt to civilize the Native Americans.
Despite this, the United States has often passed laws which usurp Indian sovereignty. One problem that continues to crop up in these discussions of sovereignty is the question of what exactly sovereignty means. The definition of sovereignty can be hard to pin down. One of the best definitions came from Mike Myers, a Seneca Indian, as quoted in the essay “Indian Sovereignty” by K. Kickingbird, L. Kickingbird, Chibitty and Berkley: “Ideally, sovereignty is the unrestricted right of groups of people to organize themselves in political, social and cultural patterns that meet their needs. It is the right of a people to freely define ways in which to use land, resources and manpower for their common good.
This shows that the effort to help them join the US society was working. They still had reservations to go back too, but they clearly were able to feel at home with the US citizens. After the 1970 census, it was clear to all US citizens that an effort to appease the Indians was being made. Organizations such as the Native American Rights Fund and the American Indian Movement used the sudden interest to help the Indians. They felt that full compensation for the Indians’
The chapter, “Leaving Paradise” in Swallow the Air by Tara June Winch provides an insight into the negative aspects of belonging to a disaffected family and race through how it explores various social issues like alcoholism and domestic violence as well as other issues such as abandonment and discrimination. It demonstrates how these can influence the way in which people belong to a family as well as how the disadvantages faced due to cultural background can influence this. Alcoholism is introduced early into this chapter, when the author writes about Billy’s eighteenth birthday. The aunty that the protagonist May, and her brother live with has an alcohol and gambling addiction. She is described to be “either out or out of it”.
Statements like these clearly indicate that the United States already views the land as its own, and negates all claims that Native tribes might have had to the land. The settler’s law has now become their law, whether they like it or not. Another document, “Land and Law as Agents in Educating Indians” by U.S. Board of Indian Commissioners member Merrill Gates, further reflects not only the aforementioned view of the Indians land but also goes into greater detail about the prevailing attitudes towards Native Americans at the time. A telling passage in from the section “What is an Indian” states: “Daniel Webster applies to the Indians an old legal definition…he calls them ‘perpetual inhabitants with diminutive rights.’ On the whole, the term which has found most favor with those who consider the matter is ‘wards of the
Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely, and are based on the differing histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans and bands. Early European explorers describe individual Native American tribes and even small bands as each having their own religious practices. There are some features appear to be common to many basic religions that still exist or existed in some form in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, when anthropologists began to study them. These features have begun also appeared in the historical religions of which we are aware. These common features are; • Animism • Magic •
Three aspects of burnout are emotional exhaustion, negative, cynical attitudes and feelings about one’s clients and the tendency to evaluate oneself negatively with regards to one’s work with clients. Consequences of burnout can have serious consequences to staff, patients and the healthcare institutions involved. The studies conducted led to the development of the Maslach Burnnout Inventory
Since signing a treaty with the United States government in the 1800's, they are trying to embrace the heritage and traditions of their ancestors. I can relate a piece of myself to this story, because I too, like Scott Momaday, have ancestry related to the Cherokee
This relationship has been established to further distinguish Indians from racial classification for purposes of affirmative action laws and other federal statutes that establish federally funded programs for the general public. The provision of medical services is frequently called for based on the treaties between the U.S. government and Indian tribes. These services include services of physicians and the provision of hospitals for the care of Indian