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COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES/PERSPECTIVES Psychodynamic Perspective and Cognitive Perspective Psychology is characterised by a variety of different approaches, each emphasising different factors in their explanations of mind and behaviour. This essay is going to outline two of the five approaches which are psychodynamic and cognitive approaches. The psychodynamic approach was mainly initiated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and he explained behaviour in terms of unconscious drives and the dynamics of the id, ego and superego. Freud said "I set myself the task of bringing to light what human beings keep hidden within them. The task of making conscious the most hidden recesses of the mind is one which it is quite possible to accomplish�. {Hill 1998 Page 16}. However the cognitive approach was developed by Piaget in the (1950's) and this was because of a growing dissatisfaction with the behaviourist approach. In the psychodynamic approach, focus is more on what takes place in human heads, in other words it is a natural process which humans are born with and it determines behaviour patterns concerning relationships, experience and surroundings. However the cognitive approach focuses on how humans process information (stimuli/input) and how we respond to what we have processed in (output) which is also a natural process as humans are born with this function. The main areas of study in cognitive psychology are perception, attention, memory and language. Freud assumed that the mind is divided into three parts; conscious, unconscious and preconscious and that sex was the central motivating force, although psychoanalysts' preferred to emphasise the importance of social factors, they did highlight the importance of childhood experience. The three components id, ego, and superego influence the mind or human behaviour in four different categories. The

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