Mutation Essay

511 WordsFeb 22, 20133 Pages
There are three examples of mutations that occur in cells are single base substitutions, insertions and deletions, and chromosomal mutations. Each of these mutations causes damage to the DNA, which changes it and may seriously harm the cell. The first type of cell mutation is single base substitutions. This is when a single base changes, which is also called a point mutation. If the substitution is of the same kind, (purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine) the mutation is called a transition. If the substitution is of different kinds, (purine to pyrimidine or vice versa) the mutation is called a transversion. There are four types of point mutations. They are missense, nonsense, silent, and splice site mutations. In a missense mutation, a single base is changed and that changes the amino acid produced. This causes a different protein to be created, which can cause problems within a cell, as it will have the wrong type of proteins in them. In a nonsense mutation, the single base changed causes a stop codon to be created. This causes translation of the mRNA to stop prematurely, which caused a truncated protein to be produced. This protein won’t function correction and will cause problems within it. In a silent mutation, the base changed makes no difference in the final protein product. Because several of the codons create the same amino acids, this can happen. In several cases, one base can be changed without any detrimental effects on the cell. Splice site mutations deals with the introns of a cell. If a splice site is mutated, the intron may not be removed and an incorrect protein will be produced. Insertions and deletions are the next type of mutation. This happens when a base pair or pairs are deleted or some new base pairs are added. The number of basses added or removed can be just a few our a couple thousand. Insertions or

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