Giuseppe Garibaldi was able to harness the power of the mass, most especially the peasants. It took fast thinking and talking, with some wonderful maneuvering to get Garibaldi to hand over the throne to the king. Cavour was behind this and he was the important man behind the unification of Italy. Garibaldi’s campaign had strong features of
How significant was Mazzini in the growth of opposition to autocratic and foreign rule in Italy in the years 1831–49? (30) Mazzini was a republican nationalist who had a significant effect in the growth of anti-autocratic feeling in Italy. He had radical aims for the future of Italy and he envisioned unification. He was the first leader to indoctrinate in the minds of Italians a vision of political unification. Mazzini created the Young Italy society after the 1831 revolutions.
Napoleon planned an attack on the Royalists and defeated them again. Napoleon became indispensable to the Directory he returned to Paris from Italy as a hero, more popular than the Directors. In 1798 Napoleon planned to invade Britain but on realizing the French were not equipped to do so, he decided to do an expedition to Egypt instead. He included academics and intellectuals in his army because he wanted to plunder Egypt militarily but also culturally. On the way he conquered Malta and finally arrived in Egypt where he easily won the battle of the Pyramids.
His first move was to test the other European powers by inserting troops into Germany’s coal mining area next to France. This was ofcourse forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles and Hitler wanted to see how far he could push his adversaries before they would strike back. If Britain had not been so passive to Hitler they might have stopped this war before it ever started. They, however, allowed Hitler to do this because they did not want to start another war. Hitler then pushed the European powers further and further until he invaded Poland and Europe had no choice but to react.The results of the vote were fixed and showed that 99% of Austrian people wanted Anschluss (union with Germany).
Mussolini’s position as prime minister in October 1922 was by no means secure, the king was still able to at any time dismiss him if any opposition to the fascist party was high and people wanted an alternative government. From the start Mussolini intimidated his opponents and rivals. In 1922 November the 16th he held his first speech as prime minister, he claimed he could with 300,00 black shirts behind him create a fascist government if he wanted to, the parliament responded to his disguised threat by giving the government new votes of confidence. Ex prime ministers Giolitti and facta voted in favour, and he was granted emergency powers. He also had to strengthen his position in the party he created a fascist
Influenced by the Russian Revolution of 1917, a series of strikes and revolts had broken out making Italy nothing but a ground for organised crime. The elected liberal government could not do anything but stand and watch as riot let loose leaving Benito Mussolini to take matters into his own hands in order to combat unrest, manipulating Italy’s Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti in the making, this being the beginning of Mussolini’s rise to power. One of Mussolini’s first moves, inspired by the red shirts, was to gather nationalist intellectuals, young land owners whom opposed peasants and former army officers to form a group known as the Paramilitary Blackshirts – Mussolini’s military tool in his political movement. This was the beginning of the growth of Fascism in Italy. The paramilitary Blackshirts were used by Mussolini to torture those who opposed the fascist movement, as Mussolini’s power grew, the Paramilitary Blackshirts methods became harsher and Fascism grew.
Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on one select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom all power proceeds downward (www.spu.edu). The apogee of Fascism can be best described by the chronological analysis of the trends and objectives of Fascism through the period from the end of WWI to the end of WWII, when the two most recognized names were Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf Hitler (www.fordham.edu).
As each new era ushers in change, there is always one individual that can be associated with facilitating these reforms, Lorenzo Medici and the Renaissance, Galileo and the Scientific Revolution, Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. Predeceasing these infamous men is Caesar Augustus. Many argue that Augustus was reformer, others a revolutionary. Augustus was both; he took prior roman laws and tradition and reformed them in revolutionary ways. He kept the traditions and ideals that made Rome strong and used them to reshape a government that would dominate over the Mediterranean arena for the next 400 years.
This had serious consequences for not only Abyssinia but also the survival of the League itself and its principle of “collective security” In April 1935 the Stresa Front was formed, it was triggered by Germany's declaration of its intention to build up an air force, to increase the size of its army. It did not last long, However, falling apart when the Italians broke the peace with their attack on Abyssinia in October 1935.There a number of reasons why Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, targeted Abyssinia for annexation in the mid-1930s, one was a retry of their failure attempt in 1896. Italy had previously been at war with Abyssinia but failed miserably, losing a huge amount of men and an enormous amount of casualties. The casualty rate suffered by Italian forces at the Battle of Adowa alone was greater than any other major European battle of the 19th century, beyond even the Napoleonic Era's infamous Waterloo and Eylau. The well-trained modern Italian forces had been defeated by backward, poorly equipped Abyssinian tribesmen.
Fascism did not rise from one single event; it grew from actions of people and groups over many years. The Unification of Italy through to the post war years of 1919 – 1922 brought constant problems within the economic, social and political levels of society which led to the Fascist regime destroying a political system that had lasted 50 years. Economic, Social and Political problems post WW1 The new state of Italy was to be dominated for the next 50 years by the Liberals. They believed that under the rule of educated, progressive men, such as themselves, Italy would become a “citizenry proud of its nationality and loyal to state. (Robson, 1992)” However, reviewing the economical, social and political issues this was not to be.