Multi-Store Model of Memory The multi-store model is the explanation for how memories are processed. It explains why only a few things are remembered and why some things are remembered and others aren’t. Atkinson and Schiffrin were the first to describe the multi-store model. They designed a simple diagram to show the multi-store memory: Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval Sensory memory Environmental Stimuli Attention Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information Retrieval Elaborate Rehearsal Long-term Memory Retrieval The Multi-store Model has 3 different places for memory storage. Information passes from store to store in a linear way and there are different explanations for forgetting in each store The first store is where sensory memory is processed.
Outline and evaluate the model of working memory In this essay I am going outline what is working memory in terms of psychology and evaluate it in terms of both advantages and limitation of the working memory model. The fact that short-term memory contains both new information and information retrieved from long-term memory has led some psychologists to prefer the term ‘working memory’ (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; Baddeley, 1986,1992) Working memory model is an alternative to the multi-store model; it is a far more complex explanation of short-term memory. Baddeley and Hitch argued that the short-term memory was made up of several subsystems, each of them have a specialized function, rather than the short-term memory model being a single inflexible store. According to Martin, G. N, Carlson, N.R & Buskist, W. (2006) “According to Baddeley, working memory is a short-term memory system that allows us to retain material for current use and not just for transport into long-term memory.” Baddeley suggested this short-term memory as having three independent components that allow us to store temporarily visuo-spatial material and verbal material. These components were so-called the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad and the Phonological Loop.
To what extent does the Multi Store Model offer a reasonable account of human memory? The Multi Store Model was designed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. The model proposes there are three different memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information from the environment is constantly received by the sensory memory store; most of it being irrelevant information. However if the information receives attention, it will pass on to short term memory.
The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) is a classic model of memory. It is sometimes called the modal model or the dual process model. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores (see below) The multi store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory.
Information passes through each stage/store by control processes. The information must pass through all stages in order to get to the end. SENSORY MEMORY The sensory memory receives incoming information. The information it receives is sensual i.e.visual or auditory. The Sensory Memory Store has a limited abilility to store information, any information received will either decay or by taking notice of the information can then continue forward to the (STM).
Describe and evaluate 2 models of memory. The Multi-Store Model (MSM). The multi-store model which is also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which was first recognised in 1968. The model identifies three stores: Sensory memory, Short-Term memory and Long-Term memory and it explains how information is transferred between these stores. The information enters the sensory memory model which is stimulated by the sensory form which remains unaltered in the mind for a brief time before decaying.
The information from the sensory memory will then be encoded and passed into short term memory. Short term memory has scarce capacity and duration nevertheless if the information is processed further by rehearsals, then it can be transferred to long term memory. The capacity and duration of the long term memory is unlimited whereas short term memory has a short duration and can only hold small amounts of information. Various studies have been performed to support this; Glanzer and Cunitz illustrated a functional dissociation where they gave their participants list of words presented one at a time and tested their free recall. Some participants were asked
Memory is to do with how we encode, store and retrieve information. The multi-store model of memory was suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin who said that we have 3 different memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory and formed a linear model to demonstrate the process. A key aspect of the model is that the memory stores have different characteristics which include capacity, duration and encoding. Capacity refers to how much information that can be stored, duration is how long the memory lasts and encoding is how the memory is taken in and stored to be recalled later. We have sensory memory stores where information from the outside world is taken in unconsciously so if it is not looked at consciously it can be lost via decay as the duration is very short (possibly up to 2 seconds).
Where the information is detected initially by the senses and then enters the sensory memory. Below is an example of what Atkinson and Shiffrin first model looked like Information is detected by the sense organs from the environment and enters the sensory memory. If attention is paid to the input or the information that is being received, only then does it enter the short term memory (STM). Information from the STM is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed. If rehearsal does not occur, then information is forgotten.
Short term memory is stored and retrieved sequentially. Long term memory is stored and retrieved by association. Information can be organized in sequences to help aid retrieval. Many memory experiments have been criticized for the settings and the tasks are a long way from everyday activities and life. Low ecological validity plays a big role in the criticism of memory experiments, how can an experiment be realistic if the setting is in a laboratory?