Mrs C. Smiths Essay

5745 WordsJan 31, 201423 Pages
Edward Jenner was an English doctor, the pioneer of smallpox vaccination and the father of immunology son of a preacher, born on 17 May 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. He was not even five years old when he lost both his parents. His siblings thought that he should be a doctor. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a local surgeon and then trained in London. After successful medical studies in London, returns Jenner at the age of 23 back in Berkeley, where he goes to work as a village doctor. At that time people were afraid of a terrible disease, smallpox, not only in England but throughout the world, one of the greatest killers of the period, particularly among children. Jenner therefore becomes obsessed with the old woman talk which they believed “that milkmaids who could not contact smallpox had already had another mild infection namely cowpox, serious form of smallpox. Jenner decided to carry out an experiment to see if the people were right. In 1796 the milkmaid Sarah Nelmes came to Jenner with cowpox rash of on her hand. Jenner took pus from a little rash on her hand. He scratched some of the pus in the hand of the 8 -year-old James Phipps, the son of his gardener. James got the cowpox but was healed back soon. He had developed the theory that a mild attack of cowpox would avoid a much heavier attack of smallpox and he was right. This practice he gave vaccination. Jenner subsequently proved that having been inoculated with cowpox Phipps was immune to smallpox. He submitted a paper to the Royal Society in 1797 describing his experiment, but was told that his ideas were too revolutionary and that he needed more proof. Jenner was not discouraged; he experimented on several other children, including his own 11-month-old son. In 1798, the results were finally published and Jenner coined the word vaccin from the Latin 'vacca' for cow and

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