If the concentration of water in a cell is lower than the concentration of water in the solute the solution is said to be hypotonic and the cells swell because they will take up water. It is possible for animal cells to swell to the point of bursting because they do not have cell walls to limit the amount of water that enters. Plant cells hold the excess water in their large vacuoles and have cell walls so they remain rigid and further uptake of water will not happen. When the concentration of water in a cell is higher than the concentration of water in the solute the solution is said to be hypertonic and the cells will shrink because the water will diffuse from the cell into the solution. A plant whose cells are in a hypertonic solution will appear droopy because there is a loss of turgor pressure in each cell.
The shape of a cell is related to its function because of the adaptations made throughout time to make the cell as efficient as it can be. There are two types of cells, eukaryotic cells, which are generally plant and animal cells and prokaryotic cells which relate to bacteria and fungi, which undergo asexual production. Plants are anchored into the ground by roots. The function of roots is the transportation of water and mineral ions from the soil into the xylem to transport around the plant. The roots have an outer layer of cells called root hair cells that have a specific shape that makes the uptake of water and mineral ions more efficient.
If the substrate (key) doesn’t fit it won’t work with the enzyme (lock). This is important because without enzyme the processes would be to slow and poisonous chemicals would build up. The factors that affects if an enzyme would work correctly or not is if there is a suitable pH level and temperature. An example of an enzyme is Catalase. It is the one that we used in our experiment.
Another example of a lipid is Phospholipids which is a derivative of triglycerides. The main function is to form basis of cellular membranes, and example is phospholipid bilayer of the cellular membrane. As you can see lipids are an important part of the body. The body needs lipids to operate properly. Many lipids can are able to cross the membrane on their own, the lipids that cannot move across on their own get help by permeation which is the diffusion through a barrier of a substance of solution.
Heather Doyle SC121 06/19/2014 Lipids are fatty acids that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids are an important structural material in most living organisms. (Santos and Schulze, 2012) These fatty acids provide the building blocks for the synthesis of components used in the storage of energy. Lipids are not naturally produced by the body and have to be introduced by means of diet. These EFA’s consist of two primary lipids, Omega-3 (alpha-lenolenic acid) and Omega-6 (linoleic acid).
Due to its ability to dissolve so many molecules, water is an important transport medium in animals and plants. Water molecules are attracted to one another by hydrogen bonds and this restricts the movement of the molecules. This means that a relatively large amount of energy is required to increase the temperature of water (it has a high specific heat capacity) and that large bodies of water are slow to change temperature, lakes and oceans for example. Due to their high water content, the bodies of organisms are also slow to change temperature and this makes maintaining a stable body temperature easier. Water also requires a relatively high amount of energy to become a gas and this can be used as an effective means of cooling the body by sweating and panting.
The 7 Food Groups | The role of these nutrients in the metabolism ( to provide either regulatory or structural molecules) and the role of minerals and vitamins in the enzyme system. | Carbohydrates | Carbohydrates are a main source of energy to the body. This is due to the fact that they can be converted into glucose; a sugar that is used by the body. Glucose is important but must be kept at balanced levels to avoid tiredness and irritation. Examples of foods with carbohydrates include bread, potatoes, rice and pasta etc.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin) * Function: Essential in the metabolism and synthesis of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates and fats and the release of energy from these foods. Keeps hair, skin and nails healthy. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) * Function: Required for the production of red blood cells, DNA and proteins in the body. It is important for the growth and repair of cells and tissues and is especially important during pregnancy to prevent babies being born with spina bifida. Vitamin B12 * Function: Required for the metabolism process and to maintain the nervous system.
Trace elements are required by the soil for fertility and include copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, iron and cobalt. The nutrients are divided into two groups, macronutrients and micronutrients. The roles in both the plant and the horse are described below.  Macronutrients are essential elements. Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy.
They are the storage material and the building material. For example, as the building material, they are responsible to protect the cells or the whole organism. As the storage material, it holds on to the amount of glucose until it releases which is the process called hydrolysis. Carbohydrates are very important sources of energy. They give organisms the energy we all need to move around and work.