These include.... * The eruption had left destruction in its wake, it created a ‘Pyroclastic Flow’ or ‘Nuée ardente’ (Glowing Cloud). This is a cloud of volcanic debris, made up of solid, semi solid and hot, expanding gases. The cloud behaves like a liquid, flowing down the slope of the volcano. It can reach up to and above 100Km/h and so destroys everything in its path. The pyroclastic flow from Mt.
As the plate descends it causes earthquakes in the Benioff zone, and volcanoes occur here because of melting of the plate in the asthenosphere. These are the causes of this volcano, which is explosive because the lava is Rhyolitic, has high gas pressure and high Silica
The shifting of the earth’s plates in the Indian Ocean on Dec. 26, 2004 caused a rupture more than 600 miles long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps 10 yards horizontally and several yards vertically. As a result, trillions of tons of rock were moved along hundreds of miles and caused the planet to shudder with the largest magnitude earthquake in 40 years. Within hours of the earthquake, killer waves radiating from the epicentre slammed into the coastline of 11 Indian Ocean countries, damaging countries from east Africa to Thailand. A tsunami is a series of waves, and the first wave may not be the most dangerous. A tsunami “wave train” may come as surges five minutes to an hour apart.
What is "summit deflation"? (page 94, para 2 to page 95) Summit deflation, which is measured by tilt meters in parts per million, is when the slope of a volcano changes usually relatively prior to an eruption. 4. How does Kilauea's magma move upward
This is an analysis on what is known to be the largest earthquake and biggest tsunami ever to hit Japan on March 11, 2011. The earthquake and tsunami Japans coast lies in ruins after the earthquake hit followed by the tsunami picking up everything in its path like cars, houses, and warehouses. Seismometers, strain gages, and title gages records the disaster. P-waves travel at four miles a second and within seconds warnings flash across the country. The S-waves shake the ground making earthquakes so damaging and the reactor core is shut down (Kerger, 2011.
It also destroyed a lot of property which is estimated to be about $6 billion. This is the biggest earthquake ever to occur and recorded along the fault lines of San Andreas from the previous massive earthquake back in April of 1906. Most of the property devastation that was caused by the earthquake happened in the Oakland and also in San Francisco areas that were about 100 kilometers northwards from the fault line where the section moved in the San Andreas region. A lot of houses collapsed while several reinforced –concrete viaducts were destroyed in four areas of Oakland and also San Francisco. The areas namely: Embarcadero Freeway, Nimitz Freeway, which is in Highway 10, Oakland and the Interstate 280.
How to predict an volcanic eruption Ground Deformation Ground deformation is the change in shape that happens before during or after a volcanic eruption. This happens because the sides of the volcano change shape because the magma in many ways to measure the change of shape of the volcano, like leveling, triangulation and more recently using continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS). It is also possible to use lakes as large tilt meters. Tilt meters measure the tiny degrees of tilt or slope on land. This is one of the oldest methods of knowing when ground deformation was caused because of rising lava.
J. Subbiondo © 2004The CrustThe outer layer of the Earth is called the crust. It is made up of rock that floated to the surface when the Earth was formed. It is not a continuous layer, but is made up of large masses called tectonic plates.These plates drift slowly across the Earth's surface (tectonic means moving).The movement of these plates creates mountains and valleys.At weak points in the crust, it causes volcanic eruptions. And when plates bump into each other, earthquakes occur -- emitting shock waves or vibrations called seismic waves. The crust is the Earth's coldest layer.
Examples of regional metamorphic rocks include schist and gneiss. Thermal metamorphic rocks, also known as contact metamorphic rocks, are formed by extreme heat along with quite a bit of pressure. The pressure pushes the molten rock against the Earth's surface, causing it to recrystallize. Examples of thermal metamorphic rocks are marble and sandstone
The Great Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake rocked Japan and sent a thirty-three foot tsunami raging down the coast to devastate their towns even further. To make matters even worse, the earthquake also triggered a nuclear emergency that has been compared to the Chernobyl disaster of 1986. (McCurry, 1) This earthquake was the worst earthquake in Japan’s recorded history. (McCurry, 1) It would not be surprising if people will still talk about it for centuries to come. The earthquake began off of the north-eastern coast of Honshu and caused catastrophic damage.