Motivational Theories and Factors

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Motivational Theories and Factors Terry E. Michel PSY 302 Professor Cain May 1, 2011 Motivational Theories and Factors Motivation is a central topic of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Effective motivation is one of the most important ingredients for moving organizations forward in the modern world. In its technical meaning, motivation is an energizing force that stimulates arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior (DuBrin, 2004). In this paper I will attempt to compare and contrast three motivational theories including the relationship of stress and conflict in relation to individual motivations. I will also discuss effective techniques used in stressful situations at work both present and future. The first theory of motivation I want to discuss is Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy”. In his hierarchy of needs he suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. His hierarchy of needs is usually displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. This hierarchy represents what most people can see as progressive approach to self-actualization. Using motivation, one can achieve the highest level of self-esteem and self-worth. The next theory of motivation is a goal-setting theory. A goal is what a person is trying to accomplish (DuBrin, 2004). In order to direct ourselves we set goals that are clear and understandable, challenging, and achievable. Feedback is an important element in goal setting. We need feedback so we can determine whether we are succeeding or whether we need to change our goals and/or direction. We find feedback very encouraging and motivating. This includes feedback from our selves. Negative self-talk is just as de-motivating as negative comments from other
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