Motivation Essay

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Motivation “Motivation; Incentive or inducement, the process that arouses, sustains and regulates human behaviour.” (Collins Dictionary of The English Language) An employee’s performance is usually described as a use of both motivation and ability, the biggest task facing a manager is to motivate their employees to preform well. Bennet (1991) suggests that an employee’s motivation to work consists of all the drives, forces and influences that cause the employee to achieve certain aims. Most of the motivation theories are based on employee performance and how work and rewards received satisfy the individual’s needs. I will outline the content and the process theories in this essay. Content theories solely believe that needs are the most important factors for an individual’s level of motivation. The theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943), suggests that the needs at the lower level of the hierarchy dominate an individual’s motivational drive as long as they continue to be satisfied. These come under the deficiency needs and are physiological needs and safety/security needs. Once these needs are satisfied the individual can progress onto the higher set of needs, which are social, self esteem and self actualisation needs. These are the growth needs, and are required as part of a psychological growth progress. When a need is unsatisfied it activates seeking or searching behaviour in the individual, needs that are satisfied no longer motivate. This point clearly highlights the reasoning for the needs to be arranged in a hierarchy, the ascending order illustrates that the next unachieved level acts as a motivator. Maslow (1943) describes it as the desire for self-fulfillment, to achieve everything one is capable of. However, according to Maslow’s theory, people who work in low-paid or hazardous emplyment will be less interested in the higher set of

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