Buchanan (1986) defined motivation as a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to them. In HRM the term refers to person’s desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform assigned tasks.
Motivation is an important (HRM) functions to join and stay talented workers and perform better and do extra for organization, is one of the most important parts that organisations need to focus on in order to gain success and competitive advantage. Also motivation can helps organisations to achieve their objectives; it gives them the power to increase effectiveness in many areas of their business, and helps them to achieve organisational strategies (Kleiman, 2000).
People behaviour is determined by what motivation them. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation.
Performance = fuction (ability x motivation)
Kreitner et al. suggested that motivation is not only a necessary contributor for job performance, motivation is also a combination of level of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and emotions, and facilitating and inhibiting conditions not under the individual’s control.
There have many motivation theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation.
Content theories of motivation include
Maslow’s hierarchy of need model;
Alderfer’s modified need hierarchy model;
Herzberg’s two factor theory;
McClelland’s achievement motivation theory.
Process theories of Motivation include
Vroom, Porter and Lawaler’s expectancy-based models
Adam’s equity theory
Locker’s goal theory
Heider and Kelley’s attribution theory
The simple motivation theory which are called extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work....