Aristotle argues that material is what an object consist of and this matter we could not live without. He feels that education is the key and having the experience is good for happiness. Aristotle states that it is important to consider our ethical first principle not merely as a conclusion drawn from certain premises, but also in its relation to the popular opinion (Aristotle, 701). He says how it is important to follow what we believe and because
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UTILITARIANISM AND CONSEQUENTIALISM Utilitarianism and consequentialism are closely related but they are not the same. These two views have different approaches. Utilitarianism is a theory that evaluates happiness, welfare and well being. It states that everyone want to be happy and avoid any possible pain to the highest percentage of people. It focuses on what the goals are and how they can be achieved.
Morality is not simply about avoiding the wrong, but is also about doing what is virtuous. This theory is secular in the fact that it is non religious and therefore universal as it can be applied to all, and we all strive for happiness. Virtue ethics also values morality for its instrumental worth as when people acquire good habits of character, they are better able to regulate their emotions and their reason. This, in turn, helps us reach morally correct decisions when we are faced with difficult scenarios. Furthermore it emphasises the need for people to break bad habits of character, as they prevent one from achieving full happiness and being a moral person.
Deontology is the theory that an individual does something because the individual believes it is the right thing to do. They do not look further into the action or bring the possible consequences to mind. They simply believe it is the correct thing to do and act upon it. Deontology is similar to Utilitarianism because it is again based on singular decisions of an individual. Utilitarianism and Deontology are more of a structured belief or theory while virtue theory is more flexible.
Mill explains that utility can be understood in terms of pleasure and the absence of pain and not just by the usefulness of something (Module 7.1). Utilitarianism at its root is maximizing happiness for as many people as possible. “The Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness (Mill 14). Meaning Mill’s ethical theory of utility evaluates the moral worth of an action on whether it increases or decreases happiness (Module 7.1). Mill roots the Greatest Happiness Principle in his theory of life.
The overall direction of each of these philosophers, however, was quite similar, and all three are generally referred to as "Socratic". Aristotle's ethics is built around the premise that people should achieve an excellent character as a pre-condition for attaining happiness or well-being. It is sometimes referred to in comparison to later ethical theories as a "character based ethics". Like Plato and Socrates, he emphasized the importance of reason for human happiness, and that there were logical and natural reasons for humans to behave virtuously, and try to become virtuous. Aristotle focuses on courage and temperance as the two typical moral virtues which can be described as a mean, then discusses a whole range of minor virtues and vices which can be described as a mean, and only then discusses justice and the intellectual virtues.
Consequently, other modern philosophers, such as Susan Wolf, Robert Louden, Elizabeth Anscombe and Nicholas Gier, have shared their views of Virtue Ethics. Aristotle encouraged individuals to consider their options, according to virtues, when making moral decisions. This makes it a good way to make these decisions because this generally leads to people making rational and sensible choices. Virtue Ethics teaches that we should live by the Golden Mean. This is a system that places emphasis on developing moral virtues by striving for moderation.
This leads Mill and Nietsche to believe that whatever they choose to do with their lives to make them happy, then that is their form of "right." In contrast, Aquinas would be the one to side with Aristotle because both philosophers are aiming towards reaching virtue and happiness in the end. Aquinas believes that law is nothing but reason for the common good, and that,if laws are obeyed, people will be led towards their happiness. This is similar to what Aristotle believes. He believes that people must do good to reach moral excellence (virtue), so if his and Aquinas's theories were combined, humans would reach virtue and happiness all together by obiding by the laws created for
Since the true path to happiness, according to Epictetus, is the attainment of virtue, we can all become happier by improving ourselves, whether morally or intellectually. Furthermore, Epictetus' philosophy of happiness would lead us to live less stressful lives if we came to worry about only that which we can control. Still, while I admire Epictetus and his philosophy, I do not believe that most of us could be happy purely through the attainment of virtue. I believe that social support and some level of material possessions are necessary for happiness; we cannot forever strive only for virtue. I do, however, believe that Epictetus had a strong point when he asserted that we should only, rationally-speaking, worry about what we can change -- what good is there in worrying about things we cannot
John Stuart Mills suggested that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness(MacKinnon & Fiala, 2018, p. 97)”. When I consider why I have put in the effort required to find success in work and family, then a simple answer could be because such a way of life created the most happiness for me, my family, and others. By Mills’ standard, I have acted to produce the most utility. I believe if other people also acted to create the most happiness in theirs’ and others’ lives, and didn’t interfere with others doing the same, then we would have a better world. It has also been important to me that my work supports happiness and wellbeing in the world.