“The net export effect of expansionary monetary policy will be in the same direction as the monetary policy effect”.1 Recommended Course of Action Although both fiscal policy and monetary policy prove to have beneficial effects on an economy during a contractionary period, we believe that the government should use a combination of both policies…… - The money supply may be ineffective, but in the end people want to make sure that they will have money to save up in case of emergencies. There is no change in investment spending meaning little change in aggregate demand. - Further to this, the fiscal policy may be ineffective, as the extensive “time lags” may dig us deeper, creating a depression. - To what extent?? ?
As the Reserve increases interest rates, it effectively lowers the demand for money. Increasing the interest rates would be in the Reserves best interest when the nation is experiencing rising inflation. This type of monetary policy is called contractionary monetary policy (Hubbart, 869). On the other hand, to increase demand for money the Reserve can decrease the interest rate. Decreasing the interest rate effectively increases consumer and businesses consumption.
(Kelly, M. and McGowan, J., 2012)(p.19 & 21). Fiscal policy is more effective in promoting economic growth, by increasing government spending or reducing taxes. Fiscal policy in economic has reflected both political and economic realities. Monetary policy has the ability to slow down the economy in order to promote full employment and inflation. The monetary policy to economic is to increase the amount of money, by cutting interest rates.
Monetary Policy Aaron Ashburn MMPBL/501 Feb-21, 2011 Dr. George Sharghi Introduction There is a consensus among analysts regarding the ability of economist’s to accurately forecast inflation, and consequently it appears that the relationship between real economic activity and inflation is ambiguous. It is the Fed's job to do what it can to reduce unemployment in order for the economy to sustain and to make sure that inflation returns to a level more consistent with its mandate. The central focus of U.S. monetary policy is price stability. Thanks to its control of money markets and banks, the Fed influences interest rates, asset prices, and credit flows throughout the financial system. To help attain inflation goals the Federal
Keynesian Theory Maynard’s theory is a combination of monetary policy of the central bank and the fiscal policy of the government. He believed that both policies, working in conjunction of each other, will help stimulate the economy during recessions (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keynesian_economics). For instance, if the central bank reduced the interest rate of the loans to commercial banks, the government in return signals the commercial banks to follow suit in reducing their interest rate. The government then begins to invest in the infrastructure, thus outputting income into the economy. This action then helps to create business opportunities, employments, and demands thus resulting in reversion of the initial imbalance (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keynesian_economics).
Monetary policies influence and are influenced by international developments, including exchange rates, and based on these market conditions the U.S. government can make strategic changes to these policies to maintain the country’s economic stability (full employment, stable growth and price stability). For example if Federal Reserve actions raised U.S. interest rates, the foreign exchange value of the dollar generally would rise. An increase in the foreign exchange value of the dollar, in turn, would raise the price in foreign currency of U.S. goods traded on world markets and lower the dollar price of goods imported into the United States (Federal Reserve, 2005). By restraining exports and boosting imports, these developments could lower output and price levels in the U.S. economy and control or lower
ECO/372 Learning Team Aggregate Demand and Supply Models The Keynesian economists would look at the current proposal of increasing taxes as a governmental expression of the intermediate approach to the economy. The government taking control and having the people pay the price for their higher tax bracket. These funds would be used to decrease the amount of money owed by the United States. The effects of the economy would be absorbed and educated responses would be to lessen those impacts. To increase their taxes would be appropriate and this would be stream lining taxes at a time when the economy needs a boost.
Exploring the Keynesian framework, Harrod-Dommar model points out some dynamics of growth. For instance, to determine equilibrium growth rate in the economy, the balance between supply and demand for a country’s output should be maintained. On supply side, saving is a function of the level of GDP. Investment is an important component of the demand for the output of an economy as well as the increase in capital stock. Therefore, the equilibrium rate of growth is given by matching proportionate change in output with the ratio of savings-output to that of capital-output.
A primary use of the PPI is to deflate revenue streams in order to measure real growth in output. A primary use of the CPI is to adjust income and expenditure streams for changes in the cost of living. The different uses because definitional differences that can be categorized into two critical areas: the composition of the set of commodities and services they include and the types of prices collected for these
Therefore, understanding exactly how monetary policies will affect the economy is extremely important. Monetary policies generally will raise or lower interest rates, which will ultimately affect individuals and business demand for goods and services. Unfortunately, many individuals do not understand the entire concept surrounding the Federal Reserve real interest rate. For example, any magnitude of decreasing the real rates will lower the cost of borrowing; this will increase investment spending, and influence individuals to buy durable goods. These items may consist of automotive, recreational vehicle, homes, and higher educational opportunities.