Unit 13 P2 Describe how materials of different states pass into and out of cells. The cells plasma membrane is not only used for structural purposes. Its functions to allow certain substances in and out of the cell. It can allow other substances into the cell against the concentration gradient or allow other substances (for example waste) out of the cell. There are two ways that the cell can transport substances; passive transport processes and active transport processes.
Also, cytosol is the site of chemical reactions needed to maintain cell structures and allow cell growth. E.) The types of proteins in the cell membrane that were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of his heart cells are ATP, because the lack of it affected the pumps in the membrane, and the calcium from the cytosol ATPases stopped moving calcium from the cytosol into the ER of his cardiac muscle cells. As the intracellular calcium levels rose, they caused proteases to spill into the interior of the cell, attacking the cytoskeleton. Thus, lysosomal enzymes normally bound safely inside vesicles digest the plasma membranes and membranes of the organelles. F.) Reestablishing oxygen flow to his body is so important because oxygen is required by cells to produce ATP, energy currency of the cell and without it homeostasis can shut down.
The membrane potential is due to the presence of an ionic concentration difference and electrical gradient between both sides of the membrane.movement of charged molecules across the cellular membrane leads to the creation of electrical signals. b. What two characteristics must a membrane possess in order to generate and maintain electrical signals critical to nervous tissue? The two traits required for electrical signal generation and maintenance is the presence of a resting membrane potentials and ionic pumps that maintain ionic concentration and electrical gradients between the two sides of the membrane. Membrane Transport Proteins 4.
CHAPTER 5: MICROIAL METABOLISM PRE-TEST 1: Which of the following types of transport involves the expenditure of energy and special membrane proteins? ACTIVE TRANSPORT 2: Which of the following molecules serves as the short-term recyclable energy supply for a cell? ATP 3: Which of the following is a waxy lipid found predominantly in the cell walls of Mycobacterium? MYCOLIC ACID 4: Catabolic reactions are chemical reactions that BREAK LARGE MOLECULES APART 5: Denaturation is typically a problem with which of the following? PROTEINS 6: A difference in the concentration of a chemical on both sides of a membrane leads to which of the following phenomena?
AP Biology November 3, 2011 Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis Objectives: * Measure the water potential of a substance in a controlled experiment. * Determine the osmotic concentration of living tissue or an unknown solution from experimental data * Describe the effects of water gain or loss in animal and plant cells * Release osmotic potential to solute concentration and water potential Introduction: Diffusion is the process that allows particles or molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This process accounts for the movement of many small molecules across cell membranes. The rate of diffusion of particles will be affected by the steepness of the concentration gradient or the difference in concentration between two areas. Diffusion can only occur across a membrane if there is a concentration gradient and the membrane is passable.
They also require waste substances and gasses such as Carbon Dioxide to move out of them. Many small animals can often manage to meet this demand, however larger animals often need a transport system with a pump to ensure they meet the demand. This is all because of their difference in surface area to volume ratio as surface area plays a vital role in the transfer of substances. The main principle of this movement of substances is diffusion. Diffusion is where particles move from where they are in an area of high concentration to where they are in an area of low concentration.
The osmotic pressure coefficient must be determined for different solutions. It has been determined by various researchers and investigators to be less than unity and slightly increases with increasing solution concentration if the solute is not known or it is complex, we have to use mass concentration instead of molar concentration. For convenience: this model assumed to be at a constant temperature and is incorporated with the other constant Y which simplifies osmotic pressure to solute concentration coefficient. The value of Y was assumed t-o be constant over the operating range of the solute concentration. In corporation of osmotic pressure equation into the expression for the solute flux Eq.
(Insert diagram 1 below) This is the exchange of gases occurring within our bodies by diffusion. It is necessary or vital to occur since we need oxygen from the air in the blood to remove the waste from our carbon dioxide. This explains why therefore a large surface area is required for the alveoli as it increases the rate at which oxygen is diffused. The large surface area of alveoli is also used and useful for energy
All the molecules would then collide with each other due to their kinetic energy, eventually forcing themselves away from each other, where there is more space. This area would be considered as a low concentration area because there would be less of these molecules. The difference in concentration between the two areas form a concentration gradient. The difference in diffusion between two different areas having different concentrations is called net diffusion. Substances undergoing net diffusion are said to move down or with their concentration gradient.
Aim: To find out the effect of the temperature on the permeability of the cell membrane. Research Question: Effect of temperature on amount of pigment Background: Cell membranes contain many different types of molecules/substances that help maintain the overall structure, fluidity and functioning of the membrane. It is mainly consisted of a phospholipid bilayer, with a hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic lipid tail. The phospholipid bilayer is effective in stopping molecules from exiting or entering the call. Since the membrane has a non-polar layer in its centre and two polar layers on either side, it is difficult for both polar and non-polar molecules to pass through both layers.