To what extent did Nationalism effect great power relations in the period 1789-1900 From 1789 to the early years of the 20th century , Nationalism was a hugely significant factor in the evolution of European society. It all began as a simple ideology of pride in ones national identity and ended up shaping itself into one of the most significant driving forces behind the outbreak of one of the world's most bloody, destructive and devastating wars the world has ever came to witness. During this essay I will be analysing the extent to which Nationalism affected the relations between the great powers in the years 1789-1900. From the French Revolution right up until world war one nationalism was ever-growing and expanding internationally and it eventually ended up shaping Europe as we know it. The 'force' of nationalism was so unbelievably powerful that it managed single handily to alter ideologies, nations and leaders, it managed to form new nations and pit those nations off against each other in various wars and battles resulting in bloodshed and casualties to the extent that this world had never seen before.
| The Military Revolution | The Beginning of European Global Dominance | | [Type the author name] | 11/14/2012 | History 111 (AS 01) Bohdan Somchynsky History 111 (AS 01) Bohdan Somchynsky | From the 16th Century to the 19th century Europe underwent a period of incredible military evolution and development commonly referred to as the military revolution. This “revolution” drastically altered the way armies fought, no longer was the mailed fist of the Knight what defined armies ability. The introduction of gunpowder transformed European society and economies it had direct and often dire consequences on the rest of the globe as colonial competition took hold. From its humble beginnings in 1405 when Berwick-upon-Tweed surrendered from a single shot from an English bombard to the dazzling military reforms enacted by Maurice of Nassau. Gunpowder transformed combat in a dramatic fashion, swords were replaced by muskets, pikes and spears by the ring bayonet.
Although the 1920’s would inevitably lead to an economic crash the would devastate the nation, its decade was both booming and rife with advancements. This era thrust an entirely new outlook amongst the citizens of the country, and brought to then a new and more fast-paced style of life. The 1920’s in itself birthed the nation with a brand new culture. Two factors, which most notably contributed to this new national culture, were advertising and entertainment. The 1920’s saw a shift in culture no other era had experienced thus far due to the growth and dominance of advertising.
European imperialism rose between 1870 and 1920 because of economic, political, and social forces. The Industrial revolution helped advance the European nations through technology. These nations were able to control over many areas around the world. Economic forces such as survival of the fittest, political forces such as growing powers of governments, and social forces such as racism. They were most responsible for the new imperialism.
Furthermore, the intricate system of alliances spawned during this era meant diplomacy became an impossible task that only the most expert politicians could manoeuvre. Despite the factors that could contradict the popular belief that it was Germany and it's unification that caused the First World War, the contrast of Bismarck's expert leadership with Wilhelm II's youthful and naive approach is also a huge factor, incorporated with this school of thought is the idea that the growth of Militarism, especially in Germany, made the idea of war vogue. This study will attempt to provide an alternate view point on the issue. In 1871, Otto Von Bismarck amalgamated the German States through subtle diplomacy and a series of military victories. However, the nature of their victory incited bitter indignation from the French and unsettled the European balance of power.
I think that Theodore Roosevelt played an important role in the development of Progressivism between 1900 and 1920. Progressivism is a political attitude which favours various reforms through government action. Progressivism was the general response to the vast changes brought by industrialization; it was an alternative to both the traditional conservative response and to the more radical streams of socialism and anarchism. The term progressivism is usually associated with left-winged parties in the United States. The progressive party was the most successful third party in modern American history during this time period.
Impact of Industrialization in Western Europe During the period of time between 1750 and 1900, the impact of industrial change in Western Europe due to the Industrial Revolution underwent several transformations while holding onto its original purpose: to introduce entirely new technologies that improved everyday life and skyrocket the world economy. The First Industrial Revolution between 1750 and 1850 mainly experienced local challenges such as the new industrial cities being filled with pollution and dirtiness; however, the Second Industrial Revolution between 1850 and 1900 experienced problems on a much larger scale, while also eliminating those problems by significantly improving the living standards. Another change between the two revolutions was the increased productivity during the time period 1850 to 1900, due to new machinery that could replace the need for so many workers, which led to the formation of labor unions and business cycles. However, even though the Second Revolution occurred on a much larger scale, several continuities can be noted. One such continuity is the poor working conditions experienced by the industrial workers.
Although the theory of Pan Germanism became more apparent to most in the 20th Century; its theory had in fact been around for hundreds of years previously, having originated from the desire to unify all the German provinces. Once this aspiration had been achieved in 1871 by Auto Von Bismark and Kaiser Wilhelm 1 had been corinated, it was then the aspiration for colonial expansion and to unite all German speaking peoples including those in Austria-Hungary and Eastern Europe. It was the coronation of the ambitious Pan-Germanist Kaiser Willhelm II in 1888 which resulted in the renewed hunger for the nation to expand its empire and to bring about much needed raw recourses to sustain its growing economy. It was therefore deemed a necessity, in order to protect its expanding territories, to increase military and naval capabilities, resulting in a doubling of the German army from 1870 to 1914 and dramatic increase in its naval capabilities to the second largest in the world. It was the challenge of the previously un-opposed British Navy which would provide the vital foundation for the expansion of Germany’s empire and the Pan-Germanist aspirations.
Q. 2 Globalization is a term widely used to describe the increasingly rapid integration of the world’s societies and economies. Discuss the theoretical background and practical effects of the most important factors working both for and against the transformational process. There is little doubt the modern world is changing at a rapid rate and is integrated in emphasis and degrees unmatched in history. Traditional understandings of the human condition and socio-cultural forces; of the nature of global body politic and of economic forces do not adequately reflect modern reality.
Furthermore, Tilly emphasized the application of cultural control through developing national languages and education systems. Alternate explanation for emergence of modern states is the aspect of trade and adaptation. During the 12th and 14th centuries, there was a vast increase in trade when conventional systems of churches, empires, feudalism were ill equipped to handle the matter. The best example of such sovereign state that adapted to pressures of trade was France. Furthermore, supporters of this alternate explanation claim that if the war created states, they would have all become states immediately.