Mallory (2007) states, “The patron-client model is less centralized and has less control over subordinates than the bureaucratic model (p. 41). The patron-client model demands more of an effort on behalf of law enforcement because these organizations are decentralized and have a large number of members who are not connected (Mallory, 2007). A patron-client organization is a hierarchy operation and consists of one main boss, and underboss, captains, and members. Bureaucratic Model The bureaucratic model of organized crime is based on formality, structure, rules, and protocol. The formality of procedures prevents low ranking members from making independent
Social Organized Crime Perspective Social institution is a group of people organized to achieve their goals. A social institution perspective is one who views communities as a collection of these social institutions and views the residents of the community as their members (Carlie, 2002). Social institutions are applied to organized crime in several ways. Warren (1973) defines community as “that combination of social units and systems which perform the major social functions having locality relevance.” The community’s organization is recognized by the social activities, rather than geographic or legal boundaries (Lyman & Potter, 2007). Organized crime represents a continuing, profit-motivated, criminal enterprise that employs the use of fear, violence, intimidation, and public corruption to achieve organizational goals and remain immune to law enforcement (Lyman & Potter, 2007).
Organized Crime Models James Ayers CJA/384 Criminal Procedure December 22, 2014 Mr. Marco Faggione Organized crime can be broken down into two basic models. One being the bureaucratic model, and the other being the patron-client model. These two models have some things in common with each other, and they also have a few differences. The big similarities is that the bureaucratic model uses a strict set of rules to run their organization by. The patron-client model does not have such a strict set of rules, but instead they have a set of values of traditions.
Models of Organized Crime There are many types of models in the criminal justice field. The two organizations discusses in this paper is bureaucratic and patron-client organizations. This paper will discuss the reasons as to why and how bureaucratic and patron-client organizations are different. Some of the differences are the patron-client organizations are referred to as the one chosen to break the law and the bureaucratic organizations is the organizations that enforce it. Even though there are differences between the two organizations, they have some things in common.
Assess Functionalist Approaches to the Study of Crime and Deviance Functionalists such as Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton and Albert Cohen all attempt to explain the nature and extent of crime in today’s society. In essence, Functionalists argue that society is based on value consensus and social solidarity which is sustained via socialisation and social control mechanisms within society. Emile Durkheim states that whilst crime is obviously a social negative with the ultimate power to destabilise society, he stands by the claim that crime is inevitable, universal, and integral to a healthy society and even having positive benefits. He claims that crime occurs in society due to two fundamental reasons; firstly, not everyone is effectively socialised to the same norms and values which leads to people being prone to deviation and secondly, due to the diverse lifestyle and subcultures in contemporary society, subcultures act out different norms and values and what members of that subculture regard as normal, mainstream culture may deem it as deviancy. The Functionalist approach to the study of crime states that crime has two positive functions for society.
There is also agreement on an adversary system, procedural due process, and one’s day in court (Zalman, 2008). The most important function of the crime control model is as stated by Packer (1968), ‘the repression of criminal conduct by the criminal process’” “because public safety is essential to personal freedom” (Zalman, 2008, p. 5). The presumption surrounded by this value system is, in American society there will be a breakdown of public order if law enforcement does not keep a tight reign on criminals and their activities, and citizens of this
Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Gene Schuldt CJA/384 10/20/2014 Thomas Borton Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary This paper is a summary about models of organized criminal. It will explain the difference between bureaucratic and patron client relations within the organized criminal activity. It will include summaries and differences between main models in organized crime and examples to understand the difference. The patron client relations is based on the social participation and mutual respect within the community and the lower-level client that is not directly affiliated with the organized criminal activity but yet associated through the mutual support within the criminal structure. Individuals within the patron-client relationship are at a lower-level, by committing the same acts within the community but are not directly related to the organized criminal organization by involvement within the company.
Perspectives of Social Problems and Social Responsibility Within criminology there has been multiple theories suggested to explain the numerous motives behind why crime exists in our world. The two most central arguments surrounding criminal activity is whether the crime is the individuals fault, or if it is the fault of the society that they grew up in. These views are termed social responsibility and social problems, and will be discussed in this paper along with their respected perspectives that withhold why their view on criminology is the paramount reason on why criminals commit crimes. The view of social responsibilities approach to crime termed by Schmalleger essentially states that crime is an individual responsibility, and in terms of the criminal, victim, and justice system we all play a role within the social aspect of criminal behavior. Although he feels that this way of looking at crime is not fair to the victim or the justice system, but that the media over the years has influenced this way of thinking, giving the conception that certain conditions surrounding when, where, or how the crime took place may be the factor in why it happened in the first place.
Organized Crime Prevention and Control As one author put it, “organized crime has been defined in the relative absence of Knowledge” about its true dimensions (Castle, 2008, p. 139). Albanese (1996) explains crime and possible organized crime in terms of the typologies of positivism, classicism, structural, and ethical explanations. The positive approach explains organized crime as caused by social and economic factors that include: poor neighborhoods and role models, lack of opportunity to achieve the “American Dream,” dysfunctional families, and even genetics. The positivist sees change in the conditions as a means to prevent criminal behavior. Walter Miller’s classic article “Ideology and Criminal Justice Policy” concluded with the observation, “when assertions are made about what measures best serve the purposes of securing order, justice, and the public welfare, one should ask, ‘How do we know this?’” (1973, p. 150).
Whereas on the other hand the Conflict Model of the contemporary criminal justice system refers to a model of crime where the criminal justice system is seen to be used by the ruling class to control the lower class. It argues that the organizations of the criminal justice system should work competitively to produce justice instead of cooperatively. It argues things like worries over fame promotion and other things like wages cause the criminal justice system to conflict its self. One example from within the system is between Police and prison officials. Police desire to put criminals into prison whereas prison officials are concerned about overcrowding facilities may desire to release criminals from prison 2.