Learning Management System
Simonson (2007) provided a practical definition of
Course management systems, also called learning management systems or virtual learning
environments, are software systems designed to assist in the management of educational
courses for students, especially by helping teachers and learners with course administration.
The systems can often track the learners' progress. While usually thought of as primarily tools for
distance education, they are also used to support the face-to-face classroom (p. vii).
Definition of Learner Performance
Tsao et al. (2007) define learner performance as the knowledge and skills
partnered with the learning attitudes they display. Learners in higher education are the user of
the learning management systems and should be considered during evaluation of the platforms.
Further, learner performance is articulated as the knowledge and skills obtained during
with the resulting attitude and behavior displayed by the learner Lee (2002). This would result
in the learning success and meet the learning objectives set by the course curriculum.
Overview of Learning Management Systems (LMSs)
An LMS is a particular type of software system designed and promoted for instructors
and learners to utilize in teaching and learning activities. Typically LMSs offer various tools,
such as course content organization and presentation, communication tools, student
assessment tools, grade book tools, and other functions supporting classroom learning and
teaching performance (Morgan, 2003). The 2009 report from the American Society for
Training and Development (ASTD) revealed that ninety-one percent of ASTD respondents
in their organizations utilized LMSs, and it also identified the challenges of using an LMS.
Customization requirements and content integration need to be overcome in the learning
management system (Ellis, 2009). To improve LMS implementations, organizations need to