Mklm Essay

419 WordsOct 19, 20142 Pages
Jessie Luo 1) What was Newton’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? The intellectuals of the Enlightenment thought they could discover the natural laws that governed human society. 2) What was John Locke’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Locke’s ideas suggested that people were molded by the experiences that came through their senses from the surrounding world. If environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influences, then people could be changed and a new society created. 3) What was Montesquieu’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Montesquieu’s analysis of the system of checks and balances through separation of powers was his most lasting contribution to political thought. 4) What was Voltaire’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Voltaire championed deism, an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. Deism built on the idea of the Newtonian world-machine. 5) What was Diderot’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Diderot’s most famous contribution to Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia, the purpose is to “change the general way of thinking” The Encyclopedia became a major weapon in the philosophers’ crusade against the old French society. 6) What was Adam Smith’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Smith gave to government only three basic roles: protecting society from invasion (the army); defending citizens from injustice (the police); and keeping up certain public works, such as roads and canals, that private individuals could not afford. 7) What was Rousseau’s main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Rousseau presented his concept of the social contract. Through a social contract, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. Individuals who wish instead to follow their own self-interests must be forced to

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